View this email in your browser
In This Issue
• 2016 Conferences
• Surgery Tip
• Technical Question
• Career Opportunity
• Employee Spotlight
• PittCon Review
• Recent Publications

Surgery Tip
Successful implantation of EMG leads takes practice. Choosing the right surgical technique for your animal species and level of surgical comfort is crucial. Here are two techniques that might help with EMG implantation:

1) Use a curved forceps to make a pocket within the nuchal muscle and insert the electrode directly into the opening using a second pair of forceps. Once the wires are correctly positioned, remove the curved forceps and allow the muscle to close up over the wire. Dental acrylic may be applied to the EMG wires proximal to the headmount in order to better secure the wires in place. Some users prefer to use this technique with our stainless steel electrodes due to their superior flexibility. NOTE: do not get dental acrylic near or on muscle tissue as it can cause discomfort for the animal.  

2) Use a 20 g needle as a reverse trochar to “thread” the EMG lead through the nuchal muscle. For this technique, gently puncture the skin through the neck muscles towards the headmount. Then insert the EMG wire into the needle bevel and slowly remove the needle itself. As the needle is retracted from the skin, the muscle fibers will form a tunnel around the EMG wire. Note that this technique is best used for Pinnacle’s headmounts with Pt/Ir electrodes. Stainless steel EMG leads contain a loop at the tip, preventing the EMG lead from fitting properly into the needle shaft.  

Technical Question
Which Windows versions work with Pinnacle’s Sirenia software programs?

We recommend Windows 7 when running Sirenia recording and analysis software. Windows 8 also works well with our program suite.

Sirenia runs well under Windows 10, but there is currently no way to “shut off” automatic windows updates for most users. This can have unpredictable consequences when recording long-term experiments. If using Windows 10 for acquisition, we suggest keeping your computer disconnected from the internet. For analysis, Windows 10 is fine.

Windows XP and Vista will work in a limited capacity, but they are no longer supported by either Microsoft or Pinnacle.

Career Opportunity
We are looking for someone with a strong technical background to join our sales team. This position requires a solid neuroscience / biology / chemistry / biomedical engineering background. Click here for more information.

Have a technical question? Suggestions for a future issue? Let us know! Email us at
We'd love to hear from you!

President's Message
Warm weather and thunderstorms, it must be early summer in Kansas. On the product front, our Optogenetics line keeps improving and expanding.

Click on the link to view our data presentation Combining Optogenetics with Electrophysiology Measurement for an example of the system’s capabilities.

We are looking forward to attending conferences and showcasing Pinnacle’s Optogenetics System and other products. We are off to Denver, Colorado in mid-June for the APSS Sleep Meeting and then to Copenhagen, Denmark in July for FENS Forum 2016. We look forward to meeting with you at one of these conferences.

If you have any questions regarding our Optogenetics system or other Pinnacle products, please contact one of our Sales Consultants.

All the best,

Donna A. Johnson, President and CEO 


2016 Conference Lineup
We’re looking forward to seeing you at the following events—please visit us and introduce yourself:
APSS Sleep Meeting 

June 13-15, Denver, CO
Booth 630

10th FENS Forum of Neuroscience

July 3-6, Copenhagen, Denmark
Booth 8


November 13-16, San Diego, CA
Booth 2721

AES Annual Meeting 

December 3-6, Houston, TX
Booth 740


PittCon Review

The Pinnacle team spent a few days in Atlanta showing off our products and meeting with old friends and potential new customers. PittCon is the world's largest conference and exhibition for laboratory science with 900 exhibitors from 30 countries. It was a great time and a perfect opportunity to reach out to the global scientific community. We were excited to introduce our products to a new market and be able to highlight our line up of potentiostats and biosensors as well as our newly updated FSCV system. We were excited to meet everyone and look forward to PittCon 2017 in Chicago!

Employee Spotlight
Joe Rachal

Joe Rachal is an electronics technician, now entering his sixth year at Pinnacle.

Before workinghere, Joe was a submariner in the US Navy.When he got out in 2009, it took a while to find the right job. As a Fire Control Technician, I learned some pretty specific skills," he explained. "There's not a lot of civilian jobs where you're expected to enter missile coordinates to fire at someone."

Joe was working as a plumber in Indiana when one of his old Navy buddies, Jesse Kent (also an Electronics Technician) at Pinnacle called to tell him about an job opening. Joe submitted his application and after an impressive phone interview he was offered the job. He moved to Kansas the following Monday.

Joe says he was a little surprised at first by how small some of the components are but now he says he's used to it. When asked about the most interesting part of his job, he said "All of it, because it's so different from anything else I've ever done. Whether I'm making a preamp, or building a commutator... it's all interesting because you get to learn how everything works."

"Pinnacle really is a good place to work," says Joe. "You can't beat the environment; everyone's super nice and laid back. They give you a lot of personal responsibility and then trust you to get things done. It's just really comfortable — definitely not the kind of place you dread coming to every morning."

When Joe's not at work, he spends a lot of time with his two-year-old daughter. "She's just about ready to start talking. You can tell she has every intention. There's a lot of pointing and jibber-jabbering. Her mother's really anxious for her to talk, but I'm okay with how things are. I'm in no hurry for her to grow up."


Pinnacle in Press  

A list of recent peer-reviewed articles featuring research in which our systems and instruments were used.


Balzekas, I., Hernandez, J., White, J., Koh, S. (2016). Confounding effect of EEG implantation surgery: Inadequacy of surgical control in a two hit model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Neuroscience Letters, 622, 30-36. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2016.04.033

Clasadonte, J., Morel, L., Barrios-Camacho, C.M., et al. (2016). Molecular analysis of acute and chronic reactive astrocytes in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Neurobiology of Disease, pre-publication online 7 April 2016. doi:/10.1016/j.nbd.2016.03.02

Correia de Oliveira, C., Vasconcelos de Oliveira, C., Grigoletto, J. , et al. (2016). Anticonvulsant activity of β-caryophyllene against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. Epilepsy and Behavior, 56, 26-31. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2015.12.040.

Hajeck, M.A. and Buchanan, G.F. (2016). Influence of vigilance state on physiologic consequences of seizures and seizure-induced death in mice. Journal of Neurophysiology, Advance online publication, February 17, 2016. doi: 10.1152/jn.00011.2016

Kam, K., Duffy, Á.M., Moretto, J., LaFrancois J.J., Scharfman, H.E. (2016). Interictal spikes during sleep are an early defect in the Tg2576 mouse model of β-amyloid neuropathology. Scientific Reports, 6(20119). doi:10.1038/srep20119

Oliveira, C., Vasconcelos de Oliveira, C., Grigoletto, J., Ribeiro, L.R., Funck, V.R., Grauncke, A.C., Lopes de Souza, T., Souto, N.S., Furian, A. F., Menezes, I.R., and Oliveira, M.S. (2016). Anticonvulsant activity of B-caryophyllene against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. Epilepsy and Behavior, 56, 26-31. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2015.12.040

Yu, J., Swietek, B., Proddutur, A., and Santhakumar, V. (2016). Dentate cannabinoid-sensitive interneurons undergo unique and selective strengthening of mutual synaptic inhibition in experimental epilepsy. Neurobiology of Disease, 89, 23-35. doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2016.01.013


Bola, R.A. and Kiyatkin, E.A. (2016). Robust Brain Hyperglycemia during General Anesthesia: Relationships with Metabolic Brain Inhibition and Vasodilation. Frontiers in Physiology Advance online pulication, February 15, 2016. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2016.00039

Royes, L.F.F, Gabbi, P., Ribeiro, L.R., et al. (2016) A neuronal disruption in redox homeostasis elicited by ammonia alters the glycine/glutamate (GABA) cycle and contributes to MMA-induced excitability. Amino Acids. Advance online publication. doi:10.1007/s00726-015-2164-1


Gao, V., Turek, f., and Vitaterna M. (2016). Multiple classifier systems for automatic sleep scoring in mice. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 264, 33-39. doi:10.1016/j.jneumeth.2016.02.016

Grønli, J., Rempe, M.J., Clegern, W.C., Schmidt, M. and Wisor, J.P. (2016). Beta EEG reflects sensory processing in active wakefulness and homeostatic sleep drive in quiet wakefulness. Journal of Sleep Research. Advance publication online, January 30, 2016. doi: 10.1111/jsr.12380

Kantor, S., Varga, J., and Morton, A.J. (2016). A single dose of hypnotic corrects sleep and EEG abnormalities in symptomatic Huntington’s disease mice. Neuropharmacology, 105, 298-307. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2016.01.027

Mori, T., Uzawa, N. et al. (2016).Narcolepsy-like sleep disturbance in orexin knockout mice are normalized by the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT. Psychopharmacology, Advance online publication, April 11, 2016. doi: 10.1007/s00213-016-4282-1

Zant, J., Kim, T., Prokal, L., Szarka, S., McNally, J., McKenna, J., Shukla, C., Yang, C., Kallnchuk, A., McCarley, R., Brown, R., and Basheer, R. (2016). Cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain promote wakefulness by actions on neighboring non-cholinergic neurons: an opto-dialysis study. Journal of Neuroscience, 36(6), 2057-2067. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3318-15.2016


Su, J., Chen, J., Lippold, K., Monavarfeshani, A., Carrillo, G. L., Jenkins, R., and Fox, M. A. (2016). Collagen-derived matricryptins promote inhibitory nerve terminal formation in the developing neocortex. Journal of Cell Biology, 212, 721-736. doi:10.1083/jcb.201509085

Have you recently published a paper that isn't listed? Email us and we'll include your article in our next newsletter.

Our mailing address is:
Pinnacle Technology, Inc.
2721 Oregon Street
Lawrence, KS 66046

Want to change how you receive these emails?
You can update your preferences or unsubscribe from this list