A CIS Weekly update on immigration policy related reading from the United States and around the world.

Immigration Reading, 5/5/16

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1. House testimony on DHS' release of criminal aliens
2. ICE report on the Student and Exchange Visitor Program (SEVIS)
3. Latest issue of EOIR Immigration Law Advisor
4. CRS reports on EB-5 investor visas and enforcement between ports of entry
5. FRB-Dallas report on decline in remittances to Mexico
6. Finland: Population statistics
7. Norway: Immigration statistics for 2015
8. Germany: Report on education and migrant integration
9. E.U.: Statistics on migrant integration

10. FAIR report on the impact of immigration on our schools
11. New discussion paper from the Institute for the Study of Labor
12. Four new reports and features from the Migration Policy Institute
13. New working paper from the National Bureau of Economic Research
14. Ten new and recent papers from the Social Science Research Network
15. Two new reports from the World Bank
16. "Closed Doors: Mexico’s Failure to Protect Central American Refugee and Migrant Children"
17. New report from the Oxford Refugee Studies Centre
18. U.K.: New briefing paper from MigrationWatch
19. "Health Coverage and Care for Undocumented Immigrants"
20. "Taking cues on multidimensional issues: the case of attitudes toward immigration"
21. "Changing landscapes, changing narratives: socio-cultural approach for teaching global migrants"

22. Returned: Going and Coming in an Age of Deportation
23. Strangers in Our Midst: The Political Philosophy of Immigration
24. Detained and Deported: Stories of Immigrant Families Under Fire
25. Cuba's Baseball Defectors: The Inside Story
26. The New Odyssey: The Story of Europe's Refugee Crisis
27. Impact of Circular Migration on Human, Political and Civil Rights: A Global Perspective

28. Citizenship Studies
29. CSEM Newsletter
30. IZA Journal of Migration
31. Journal of Intercultural Studies
32. Journal on Migration and Human Security
33. Population, Space and Place
34. The World Economy

House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform
April 28, 2016 2154

Criminal Aliens Released by the Department of Homeland Security

Witness testimony:

Sarah R. Saldana, Director
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement
Department of Homeland Security

Ralph Martin, Chief of Police
Santa Maria Police Department

Wendy Hartling
Mother of Casey Chadwick

Scott Root
Father of Sarah Root

Chris Burbank
Director of Law Enforcement Engagement Center for Policing Equity

Hearing videos available at link above.

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SEVIS By the Numbers
Student and Exchange Visitor Program
U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, March 2016

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Intercountry Adoption Processes and Their Continuing Complexities
By Robyn Brown
Immigration Law Advisor, Vol. 10, No. 3, April 2016

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New from the Congressional Research Service

EB-5 Immigrant Investor Visa
By Carla N. Argueta and Alison Siskin
April 22, 2016

Border Security: Immigration Enforcement Between Ports of Entry
By Carla N. Argueta
April 19, 2016

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Remittances to Mexico Fall as Immigration, Incomes Stagnate
By Jesus Cañas and Pia Orrenius
Southwest Economy, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas, First Quarter 2016

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Finland’s preliminary population figure 5,488,543 at the end of March
Statistics Finland, April 26, 2016

Summary: According to Statistics Finland's preliminary data, Finland's population at the end of March was 5,488,543. During January-March Finland's population increased by 1,235 persons, which is 1,001 persons less than in the preliminary data the year before. The reason for the population increase was migration gain from abroad: the number of immigrants was 2,647 higher than that of emigrants. There was no natural population growth, since deaths exceeded births by 1,412 persons.
. . .
Altogether 6,167 persons immigrated to Finland from abroad and 3,520 persons emigrated from Finland during January-March period. The number of immigrants was 277 higher and the number of emigrants 449 higher than in the previous year. 1,482 of the immigrants and 2,449 of the emigrants were Finnish citizens.

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More Europeans came, while fewer left
Statistics Norway, April 21, 2016

Summary: Net immigration to Norway in 2015 was 8,300 lower than the year before, primarily due to higher emigration. European citizens’ share of net immigration fell from 62 to 46 per cent. Domestic migration continued to increase.

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Education decisive for migrant integration - Data report 2016
Statistics Germany, May 3, 2016

Excerpt: Migrants in Germany are 35.4 years old – much younger than people without a migrant background (46.8 years). There are more singles, more people in education and training, and fewer of retirement age. However, immigrants in Germany also are less educated, more seldom in employment, they earn less and are more often threatened by poverty. In fact there are major differences between individual groups of migrants. The impact of education is quite obvious. For migrants, too, a higher level of education means better opportunities on the labour market, higher incomes and a falling risk of poverty.

This is the situation depicted by the Data Report 2016, a social report for the Federal Republic of Germany released in Berlin today. Statisticians and social researchers have compiled figures and findings that relate to major areas of life, including migration and integration. The data report is edited by the Federal Statistical Office (Destatis), the Federal Agency for Civic Education/bpb, the Berlin Social Science Center (WZB) and the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) at the German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin).
. . .
Migrants are more content and optimistic

Migrants are more often affected by poverty. Therefore, it is not surprising that they rate their living standard and their household income lower than people without a migrant background. However, when migrants are asked how satisfied they are with life in general, their dissatisfaction is not above average. On the contrary, they are even somewhat more content than the population without a migrant background and more optimistic about the future. They even expect their life satisfaction to be markedly higher in five years' time than people without a migrant background.

Providing migrants with an access to and structures for learning opportunities

Migrants and their offspring participate in social life in different ways and to a varying extent, depending on social and legal framework conditions. Their participation in social life also strongly depends on how open society is to migrants. This means that integration must not be regarded as a one-way process. To promote mutual integration, civic education has to provide opportunities to people with a migrant background and, simultaneously, contribute to overcoming the prejudices that exist in parts of society.

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Migrant integration statistics - active citizenship
Eurostat, May 3, 2016

Naturalisation rate. EU Member States granted citizenship to almost 1 million persons in 2013, representing 3% of all foreign citizens in the EU-27 Member States

The acquisition of citizenship represents evidence of effective migrant integration and recognition in the hosting countries, offering them fully active citizenship rights. In 2013 around 980 thousand foreign citizens received citizenship of the hosting country out of 33 million total foreign citizens residing in EU-27 Member States (see Table 1). The ratio between these two categories, defined as the naturalisation rate, was 3.0% in 2013, slightly higher than the 2.4% recorded in 2012 (see Figure 1 and Table 1).

The highest naturalisation rate of all foreign citizens at EU level in 2013 was recorded in Sweden with 7.6%, followed by Hungary with 6.5% and Portugal with 5.9% (see Table 1). Rates over 4, % were also recorded in Finland, Ireland, Spain, Poland and the United Kingdom. In contrast, the Czech Republic and Denmark with 0.5% and Slovakia with 0.3% recorded the lowest rates in the EU.

Three quarters of citizenship grants at the EU-27 level in 2013 were reported by five Member States: Spain (226,000), the United Kingdom (207,000), Germany (112,000), Italy (101,000) and France (97,000), while five Member States granted fewer than 1,000 citizenships each: Croatia, Bulgaria, Malta, Slovakia and Lithuania (see Table 1).

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Debt and Taxes: How Immigration is Changing Our Schools (Even If No One Is Allowed to Talk About It)
By Marc Ferris
Federation for American Immigration Reform, March 24, 2016

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New from the Institute for the Study of Labor

Do Foreigners Crowd Natives out of STEM Degrees and Occupations? Evidence from the U.S. Immigration Act of 1990
By Tyler Ransom and John V. Winters
IZA Discussion Paper No. 9920, April 2016

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New from the Migration Policy Institute

Managing Religious Difference in North America and Europe in an Era of Mass Migration
By Demetrios G. Papademetriou, Richard Alba, Nancy Foner, and Natalia Banulescu-Bogdan
MPI Policy Brief, April 2016

Brexit: The Role of Migration in the Upcoming EU Referendum
By Will Somerville
Migration Information Source Feature, May 4, 2016

U.S. v. Texas Immigration Case May Be Resolved on Narrow Procedural Grounds; Long-Term Future Shifts to Next Administration
By Muzaffar Chishti, Faye Hipsman, and Isabel Ball
MPI Policy Beat, April 26, 2016

Democratic Republic of the Congo: A Migration History Marked by Crises and Restrictions
Migration Information Source Profile, April 20, 2016
By Marie-Laurence Flahaux and Bruno Schoumaker

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New from the National Bureau of Economic Research

How Migration Can Change Income Inequality?
By Assaf Razin and Efraim Sadka
NBER Working Paper No. 22191, April 2016

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New from the Social Science Research Network

1. Hardship Reconstructed: Developing Comprehensive Legal Interpretation and Policy Congruence in INA § 240A(b)’s Exceptional and Extremely Unusual Hardship Standard
By Lucy Twimasi
UCLA Chicana/o-Latina/o Law Review, Forthcoming

2. What is ‘A Successful Integration’? Family Reunification and the Rights of Children in Denmark
By Silvia Adamo, University of Copenhagen Faculty of Law
Retfærd. Nordic Journal of Law and Justice, Year 39, Volume 1/152, 2016, 38–58

3. Interstitial Citizenship
By Rose Cuison Villazor, University of California, Davis
Fordham Law Review, 2017 Forthcoming
UC Davis Legal Studies Research Paper No. 496

4. Playing the Trump Card: The Enduring Legacy of Racism in Immigration Law
By David B. Oppenheimer, University of California, Berkeley School of Law; Swati Prakash, Covington & Burling LLP; and Rachel Marie Burns, Latham & Watkins
Berkeley La Raza Law Journal, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2016

5. Disaggregating 'Immigration Law'
By Matthew J. Lindsay, University of Baltimore School of Law
Florida Law Review, Vol. 68, pp 181-266, 2016

6. Does Information Change Attitudes Towards Immigrants? Evidence from Survey Experiments
By Alexis Grigorieff, University of Oxford; Christopher Roth, University of Oxford; and Diego Ubfal, Bocconi University; IGIER
Posted April 21, 2016

7. Border Checkpoints and Substantive Due Process: Abortion Rights in the Border Zone
By Kate Huddleston, Yale University, Law School, Students
Yale Law Journal, Vol. 125, 2016

8. States’ Rights and Refugee Resettlement
By Kevin J. Fandl, Fox School of Business, Temple University; Georgetown University Law Center; American University Washington College of Law
Minnesota Journal of International Law (2016) Forthcoming

9. Immigration Judicial Reviews in the Upper Tribunal (Immigration and Asylum Chamber): An Analysis of Statistical Data
By Robert Thomas, University of Manchester - School of Law
Posed April 19, 2016

10. National Borders and Urban Growth: Evidence from the Annexation of Alsace and Lorraine
By Iakov T. Kuga, National Research University Higher School of Economics (Moscow)
Higher School of Economics Research Paper No. WP BRP 133/EC/2016

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Migration and Remittances Factbook 2016
The World Bank, May 2016

Migration and Remittances: Recent Developments and Outlook
Migration and Development Brief 26, April 2016

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Closed Doors: Mexico’s Failure to Protect Central American Refugee and Migrant Children
Human Rights Watch, March 31, 2016

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New from the Oxford Refugee Studies Centre

Home-making during protracted exile: diverse responses of refugee families in the face of remigration
By Naohiko Omata
Transnational Social Review, April 2016

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National Insurance Numbers and Immigration figures for Eastern Europeans
MigrationWatchUK Briefing Paper No. 380, April 27, 2016

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Competition and solidarity: union members and immigration in Europe
By Michael J. Donnelly
West European Politics, Vol. 39, No. 4, July 2016

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Taking cues on multidimensional issues: the case of attitudes toward immigration
By Timothy Hellwig and Yesola Kweon
West European Politics, Vol. 39, No. 4, July 2016

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Changing landscapes, changing narratives: socio-cultural approach for teaching global migrants
By Luka Lucića
Pedagogy, Culture & Society, Vol. 24, No. 2, April 2016

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Returned: Going and Coming in an Age of Deportation
By Deborah Boehm

University of California Press, 184 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 0520287061, $65.00

Paperback, ISBN: 0520287088, $29.95

Kindle, 859 KB, ASIN: B01E28LH66, 195 pp., $29.95

Book Description: Returned follows transnational Mexicans as they experience the alienation and unpredictability of deportation, tracing the particular ways that U.S. immigration policies and state removals affect families. Deportation—an emergent global order of social injustice—reaches far beyond the individual deportee, as family members with diverse U.S. immigration statuses, including U.S. citizens, also return after deportation or migrate for the first time. The book includes accounts of displacement, struggle, suffering, and profound loss but also of resilience, flexibility, and imaginings of what may come. Returned tells the story of the chaos, and design, of deportation and its aftermath.

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Strangers in Our Midst: The Political Philosophy of Immigration
By David Miller

Harvard University Press, 212 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 0674088905, $35.00

Kindle, 714 KB, ASIN: B01EUZ2O9U, $33.25

Book Description: It is not unusual for people in countries with limited job opportunities and economic resources to want to seek a better life in different lands. This is especially so for those who come from countries where they are treated poorly, discriminated against, or worse. But moving from one country to another in large numbers creates serious problems for receiving countries as well as those sending them.

How should Western democracies respond to the many millions of people who want to settle in their societies? Economists and human rights advocates tend to downplay the considerable cultural and demographic impact of immigration on host societies. Seeking to balance the rights of immigrants with the legitimate concerns of citizens, Strangers in Our Midst brings a bracing dose of realism to this debate. David Miller defends the right of democratic states to control their borders and decide upon the future size, shape, and cultural make-up of their populations.

Reframing immigration as a question of political philosophy, he asks how democracy within a state can be reconciled with the rights of those outside its borders. A just immigration policy must distinguish refugees from economic migrants and determine the rights that immigrants in both categories acquire, once admitted. But being welcomed into a country as a prospective citizen does more than confer benefits: it imposes responsibilities. In Miller’s view, immigrants share with the state an obligation to integrate into their adopted societies, even if it means shedding some cultural baggage from their former home.

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Detained and Deported: Stories of Immigrant Families Under Fire
By Margaret Regan

Beacon Press, 272 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 08070719431, $22.21

Paperback, ISBN: 0807079839, 264 pp., $15.00

Kindle, 1541 KB, ASIN: B00N6PB6D6, 273 pp., $17.99

Book Description: On a bright Phoenix morning, Elena Santiago opened her door to find her house surrounded by a platoon of federal immigration agents. Her children screamed as the officers handcuffed her and drove her away. Within hours, she was deported to the rough border town of Nogales, Sonora, with nothing but the clothes on her back. Her two-year-old daughter and fifteen-year-old son, both American citizens, were taken by the state of Arizona and consigned to foster care. Their mother’s only offense: living undocumented in the United States.

Immigrants like Elena, who’ve lived in the United States for years, are being detained and deported at unprecedented rates. Thousands languish in detention centers—often torn from their families—for months or even years. Deportees are returned to violent Central American nations or unceremoniously dropped off in dangerous Mexican border towns. Despite the dangers of the desert crossing, many immigrants will slip across the border again, stopping at nothing to get home to their children.

Drawing on years of reporting in the Arizona-Mexico borderlands, journalist Margaret Regan tells their poignant stories. Inside the massive Eloy Detention Center, a for-profit private prison in Arizona, she meets detainee Yolanda Fontes, a mother separated from her three small children. In a Nogales soup kitchen, deportee Gustavo Sanchez, a young father who’d lived in Phoenix since the age of eight, agonizes about the risks of the journey back.

Regan demonstrates how increasingly draconian detention and deportation policies have broadened police powers, while enriching a private prison industry whose profits are derived from human suffering. She also documents the rise of resistance, profiling activists and young immigrant “Dreamers” who are fighting for the rights of the undocumented.

Compelling and heart-wrenching, Detained and Deported offers a rare glimpse into the lives of people ensnared in America’s immigration dragnet.

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Cuba's Baseball Defectors: The Inside Story
By Peter C. Bjarkman

Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 386 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 1442247983, $24.93

Paperback, ISBN: 1634839781, $120.00

Kindle, 3372 KB, ASIN: B01CTFCSAS, $23.68

Book Description: The stellar play and fascinating backstories of exiled Cuban sluggers and hurlers in Major League Baseball (MLB) has become one of the biggest headlines in America's national pastime. On-field exploits by colorful Dodgers outfielder Yasiel Puig, American League rookie-of-the-year José Abreu, home run derby champion Yoenis Céspedes, radar-gun busting Cincinnati fast-baller Aroldis Chapman, and a handful of others have been further enhanced by feel-good tales of desperate Cuban superstars risking their lives to escape Fidel Castro’s communist realm and chase a celebrated American Dream of financial and athletic success. But a truly ugly underbelly to this story has also slowly emerged, one that involves human smuggling operations financed by Miami crime syndicates, operated by Mexican drug cartels, and conveniently ignored by big league ball clubs endlessly searching for fresh waves of international talent.

In Cuba’s Baseball Defectors: The Inside Story, Cuban baseball expert Peter C. Bjarkman reveals the complete truth behind the wave of Cuban big league talent coming to MLB. Given rare access to Cuba and its ballplayers, Bjarkman has spent over twenty years traveling to all corners of the island getting to know the top Cuban stars and witnessing their baseball struggles and triumphs. In this book, Bjarkman places recent events—including the apparent thaw in US-Cuba relations—in the context of Cuban baseball history and tradition before delving into the stories of the major Cuban stars who have left the island. He reveals the personal histories of these players, explains the events that led them to eventually choose defection from their homeland, and details their harrowing journeys to reach US shores and achieve baseball stardom. Players whose big league dreams failed are also discussed, as are Cuba’s recent efforts to stem the defection tide through working agreements with the Japanese and Mexican leagues.

Unique in its balanced perspective of Cuban baseball and its star players, Cuba’s Baseball Defectors not only shares the author’s first-hand account of many previously misreported events, it also provides a view of the illegal smuggling of ballplayers from the perspective of Cuban baseball officials whose voices have often not been heard. With a conclusion outlining a likely scenario for future relations between Major League Baseball and the Cuban League, this book will fascinate baseball fans, those interested in the history of US-Cuba relations, and those wanting to learn more about the unsavory story of human trafficking in the name of baseball glory.

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The New Odyssey: The Story of Europe's Refugee Crisis
By Patrick Kingsley

Guardian Faber Publishing, 368 pp.

Paperback, ISBN: 1783351055, $14.66

Kindle, 2683 KB, ASIN: B01BKQXNAQ, $14.57

Book Description: Europe is facing a wave of migration unmatched since the end of World War II - and no one has reported on this crisis in more depth or breadth than the Guardian's migration correspondent, Patrick Kingsley. Throughout 2015, Kingsley traveled to 17 countries along the migrant trail, meeting hundreds of refugees making epic odysseys across deserts, seas and mountains to reach the holy grail of Europe. This is Kingsley's unparalleled account of who these voyagers are. It's about why they keep coming, and how they do it. It's about the smugglers who help them on their way, and the coastguards who rescue them at the other end. The volunteers that feed them, the hoteliers that house them, and the border guards trying to keep them out. And the politicians looking the other way. The New Odyssey is a work of original, bold reporting written with a perfect mix of compassion and authority by the journalist who knows the subject better than any other.

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Impact of Circular Migration on Human, Political and Civil Rights: A Global Perspective
By Carlota Solé, Sonia Parella, Teresa Sordé, and Sonja Nita

Springer, 279 pp.

Hardcover, ISBN: 3319288946, $129.00

Book Description: This volume addresses the topic of circular migration with regard to its multiple dimensions and human, political and civil rights implications from a global perspective. It combines theoretical and empirical studies and presents different case studies illustrating circular migration patterns and policies in different world regions. Circular migration processes – understood as the back-and-forth movement of people between countries and regions- form part of the changing nature of migration movements across the world at the beginning of the 21st century. Over the past decades, international, regional and internal migration flows have shown a quantitative increase and have changed in scope, context, origin and nature. Migration projects are every time more open-ended, multi-directional and flexible and often include some type of circularity. Instead of mere “push-pull-scenarios”, people migrate for many different reasons, including personal, family, professional, academic or political ones. In the 21st century migration journeys and the reasons underlying them are multiple and more diverse than ever before.

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Citizenship Studies
Vol. 20, No. 3-4, May 2016

Selected articles:

More than a paycheck: nannies, work, and identity
By Tina Wu

Exit, voice, constrained loyalty, and entrapment: migrant farmworkers and the expression of discontent on New York dairy farms
By Kathleen Sexsmith

‘Negative credentials,’ ‘foreign-earned’ capital, and call centers: Guatemalan deportees’ precarious reintegration
By Tanya Golash-Boza

Borderland attachments: citizenship and belonging along the U.S.–Mexico border
By Heidy Sarabia

Golden state uprising: migrant protest in California, 1990–2010
By Marcel Paret and Guadalupe Aguilera

Building political agency and movement leadership: the grassroots organizing model of Asian Immigrant Women Advocates
By Jennifer Jihye Chun

Keep moving: collective agency along the migrant trail
By Abby C. Wheatley and Ruth Gomberg-Muñoz

The border as a space of contention: the spatial strategies of protest against border controls in Europe
By Pierre Monforte

Beyond intentionality: exploring creativity and resistance within a UK Immigration Removal Centre
By Sarah M. Hughes

‘Wandering and settled tribes’: biopolitics, citizenship, and the racialized migrant
By Robert J. Topinka

Social rights in the shadow of poor relief – social assistance in the universal Swedish welfare state
By Alexandru Panican and Rickard Ulmestig

Who are (not) Koreans? Practices employed by Korean news media for covering Korean-American individuals’ success stories
By Tae-Sik Kim and Yongmin Kim

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CSEM Newsletter
May 2016

English language content:

MWRN: Myanmar Workers Detained Against Their Will in Thai Human Trafficking Shelter

Ten Burmese migrant workers are currently being held against their will in a Thai human trafficking shelter, according to the Migrant Worker Rights Network (MWRN). The workers are said to be held in a shelter in Pathum Thani province, which belongs to the Ministry of Labour, Ministry of Social Development and Human Security.

All workers have Myanmar government passports and entered Thailand legally through the Thai Myanmar government MoU recruitment process in November 2015.
. . .

Agents Prey on Female Migrants as Govt Bans Domestics Outflow
. . .
Satra Kumari Gurung, shelter chief at Pourakhi, told Republica that she was physically tortured by her employer and was brought back to Nepal three weeks ago with the help of the Nepali community there. She added that the government's decision to make the domestic-worker sector 'safe' was paving the way for traffickers and rendering numerous women more vulnerable.

“The government has time and again imposed a ban on female domestic workers going abroad purportedly to save the women from various kinds of abuse. But it is not aware that hundreds of women are opting for risky channels to reach the destination countries and thus rendering themselves vulnerable to agents,” she said.

Article 8 of the Foreign Employment Act 2064 and the Foreign Employment Regulations 2064 state that there should not be any gender-based discrimination against women in foreign employment.

Before this also, then minister for labor and employment (MoLE) Tek Bahadur Gurung had halted the issue of work permits for female domestics headed for the Gulf countries after 37 women had to be rescued from Lebanon in 2015.

The ban was lifted after the formulation of the 'Working modality for domestic migrant workers, 2015'. But MoLE has again imposed the ban.

Talking to Republica, incumbent Labor Minister Deepak Bohara said that the government won't allow any female migrants to go to any of the destination countries to work as housemaids.
. . .

Deporting 600 Migrants Back to Africa Could be Expensive, and Impossible

Costa Rica is getting tough-ish on the some 600, mostly African migrants camped out on its southern border in Paso Canoas. The government announced over the weekend that it had persuaded four families and one pregnant woman to move into a migrant youth and family center in nearby Buenos Aires — despite the protests of some men in the group who want Costa Rica to let them pass through the country on their journey to the U.S.

Communications Minister Mauricio Herrera said at a Saturday news conference that the government’s principal concern was for the welfare of the approximately 25 children and 18 pregnant migrant woman in Paso Canoas, some of whom have been sleeping on the street or in otherwise substandard conditions.

But the government has also made clear that it has no intention of cutting a deal with the undocumented migrants to either let them pass through the country, or to stay here, unless they have a valid asylum claim.
. . .


April 2016

Pope Francis Champions Refugees and Migrants
. . .
The refugee crisis has bedeviled Europe’s political leaders for some time. Having failed to do anything to stop the murderous regime of Assad in Syria, and unable or unwilling to stop the yet more murderous attacks by ISIS, the governments of Europe (and the U.S.) are complicit in the refugee crisis from the war torn regions of the Middle East, to say nothing of the 300,000 Syrians who have died in the conflict. Now, Europe turns its back on the consequence of the war it did nothing to stop or ameliorate: the displaced refugees and people, fleeing from violence and hunger, seeking a better life. Now, Europe sends them back, and offers cash to Turkey to settle them.

I understand the political challenge faced by Europe’s political leaders. A strong anti-Muslim sentiment has touched a latent xenophobia and the kind of political parties we have not seen since the 1930s appear to be gaining adherents. Europe, having placed excessive hopes on the promise of the European Union to overcome jingoistic nationalism and racialism, seems remarkably unprepared to integrate immigrants. Just so, the leaders of the countries of Europe face a choice: Do the humane thing and let the migrants and refugees in, and play catch up on how you integrate them unto society, or cave to the fear-mongering of the right, which falsely claims that these refugees pose a terror threat to Europe. Here in the U.S. too, we have seen not just Donald Trump but all the Republican candidates, save John Kasich, conflate the real threat of terror with the influx of helpless refugees.

The pope cut through all of that with his decision to visit Lesbos. Where others see political problems, he sees fellow human beings in need. “We must never forget ... that migrants, rather than simply being a statistic, are first of all persons who have faces, names and individual stories,” Pope Francis said in Lesbos. “Europe is the homeland of human rights, and whoever sets foot on European soil ought to sense this, and thus become more aware of the duty to respect and defend those rights. You, the residents of Lesbos, show that in these lands, the cradle of civilization, the heart of humanity continues to beat,” he continued. “A humanity that before all else recognizes others as brothers and sisters.”

The pope’s challenge to Europe’s leaders is not political. It is ethical and it is deeper than ethics, touching on anthropology. There is no more important premise of the democratic governments of Europe than this: All people are created equal. And, the refugees are people. Any political policy, or economic policy, that negates this core anthropological belief places these governments at war with themselves, with their own most basic values. Like an Old Testament prophet, Pope Francis is calling on Europe to be true to itself by being decent and humane to the refugees and migrants.
. . .

Libya Arrests 200 African Migrants, Human Trafficker

Libyan authorities said Sunday they had arrested 203 African migrants in the capital who were preparing to make a perilous sea crossing to Europe. An alleged people smuggler was also detained.

An early morning raid by forces battling clandestine migration targeted a house in eastern Tripoli’s Al-Hashan district and netted several dozen people, an AFP journalist said.

Armed and masked members of the authorities in bullet-proof vests rounded up the migrants and put them on vehicles to be driven to a detention center.

Dozens more were detained in another raid on a house in the same neighborhood.

No force was used in either operation and there was no resistance.

“After a tip-off about a people smuggler preparing a crossing to Europe by clandestine migrants the raids were carried out in a Tripoli suburb,” a security official said.

“We arrested 203 illegal migrants from different nationalities. They were with there with their smuggler,” he said.
. . .

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IZA Journal of Migration
Vol. 5, No. 8, April 29, 2016

Latest article:

Income, amenities and negative attitudes
By Gisela Waisman and Birthe Larsen

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Journal of Intercultural Studies
Vol. 37 No. 2, 2016

Selected articles:

The ‘Other’ in End-of-life Care: Providers’ Understandings of Patients with Migrant Backgrounds
By Sandra Torres, Pernilla Ågård, and Anna Milberg

The Importance of a Religious Funeral Ceremony Among Turkish Migrants and Their Descendants in Germany: What Role do Socio-demographic Characteristics Play?
By Nadja Milewski and Danny Otto

Uncertain Belongings: Absent Mourning, Burial, and Post-mortem Repatriations at the External Border of the EU in Spain
By Gerhild Perl

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Journal on Migration and Human Security
Vol. 4 No. 1, 2016


Potential Beneficiaries of the Obama Administration’s Executive Action Programs Deeply Embedded in US Society
By Donald Kerwin and Robert Warren

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Population, Space and Place
Vol. 22, No. 4, May 2016

Special Issue: Migrant's transnationality, societal transformation and locality

Selected articles:

Migrants' Transnationality, Societal Transformation, and Locality: an Introduction
By Margit Fauser and Gery Nijenhuis

Collective Remittances and Development in Rural Mexico: a View from Chicago's Mexican Hometown Associations
By Xóchitl Bada

Migration in Differentiated Localities: Changing Statuses and Ethnic Relations in a Multi-Ethnic Locality in Transylvania, Romania
By Remus Gabriel Anghel

Migration and the Local Transformation of Overseas Development Aid: an Analysis of Migrants' Access to ODA Funds in Catalonia
By Eva Ostergaard-Nielsen and Míriam Acebillo-Baqué

Engaging Migrants in Translocal Partnerships: the Case of Dutch–Moroccan and Dutch–Turkish Municipal Partnerships
By Edith van Ewijk

Social Mechanisms in Local Transformations: Towards a Conclusion
By Thomas Faist

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The World Economy
Vol. 39, No. 4, April 2016

Special Issue: International Migration and Inequality Across Countries


International Migration and Inequality Across Nations
By Simone Bertoli and Frédéric Docquier

On the Economic Geography of International Migration
By Çağlar Özden and Christopher Parsons

A Practitioners’ Guide to Gravity Models of International Migration
By Michel Beine, Simone Bertoli and Jesús Fernández-Huertas Moraga

Remittances and the Changing Composition of Migration
By Maëlan Le Goff and Sara Salomone

Global Competition for Attracting Talents and the World Economy
By Frédéric Docquier and Joël Machado

Migration Policy, African Population Growth and Global Inequality
By Andrew Mountford and Hillel Rapoport

Revisiting the Brain Drain Literature with Insights from a Dynamic General Equilibrium World Model
By Elisabetta Lodigiani, Luca Marchiori and I-Ling Shen

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The Center for Immigration Studies is an independent, non-partisan, non-profit research organization founded in 1985. It is the nation's only think tank devoted exclusively to research and policy analysis of the economic, social, demographic, fiscal, and other impacts of immigration on the United States.