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CHUMASH

Parshas Ki Seitzei - Chamishi with Rashi

Moshe Rabbeinu tells the Yidden about more of the mitzvos they will soon get a chance to keep in Eretz Yisroel!

Imagine you are a worker in the hot sun. You are picking the most juicy, delicious-looking grapes you ever saw. You are carefully putting them into a big basket so they can be sold in the marketplace. Do you think you’d want to taste a few?

The Torah tells us that when someone is working in another person’s field, helping to pick vegetables or fruits, he is allowed to eat until he is full! He can’t take any home with him, but he is allowed to eat while he works.

We learned many times about how a Jewish marriage is full of Kedusha. What happens when someone can’t stay married anymore?

If two people are married, and one of them acts in a way that isn’t right for a Yid, sometimes it is the right thing for them not to stay married anymore. They need to go to Beis Din, who writes a special paper called a Get. It is very hard to write a Get properly! Once the man gives her the Get, they aren’t married anymore, and she is allowed to marry someone else.

The Torah warns other men to be careful about marrying someone if her Get was because she didn’t act like a Jewish woman should — they will probably end up giving her a Get too.

If the man and woman change their minds, they can only get married again if she didn’t get married to anyone else since she got her Get.

 
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TEHILLIM

39 - 43

Today’s kapitelach of Tehillim are Lamed-Tes to Mem-Gimmel. We also say kapitelach Yud-Tes, Chof, and Chof-Alef.

In today’s Tehillim, it says “Haysa Li Dimasi Lechem Yomam Valayla, Be’emor Eilai Kol Hayom Ayei Elokecha.” “My tears were like my food all day and night, when they say to me all day ‘Where is Hashem?’”

The Rebbe explains that this posuk is saying that for a person to really be close to Hashem, we need to be crying for Hashem ALL the time, not just on Shabbos or only when we’re davening, but even when we’re eating or playing on a regular weekday.

 
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TANYA

Igeres Hakodesh Siman Yud-Alef

Emunah needs to be SO strong, that a person won’t ever be sad about Gashmius. Since he knows that everything is from Hashem, and Hashem is good, nothing bad could be happening to him!

Hashem sometimes makes things LOOK not good to test us. When we get a test from Hashem, it makes us work hard so that our neshama shines very strong. We have to use ALL of the koach of our neshama to remember and to know that the most important thing is Emunah in Hashem. With that Emunah, we can be happy even when it’s hard.

When we are besimcha even when it’s hard, since we know that Hashem is good, we become very close to Hashem. Then we will be able to see things like Hashem sees them, and we’ll be able to see how everything is really good.

 
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HAYOM YOM

Zayin Elul

Every word in the Torah is EXACT. We know all of the words and letters, and a sofer has to be very careful to write every single one perfectly!

There is only one letter in the Torah that we aren’t SURE about: That letter is in this week’s Chumash, Shlishi of Parshas Ki Seitzei, in the word “Daka.” There are two ways to write this word — with an Alef at the end, or a Hey at the end.

It says in today’s Hayom Yom that the Alter Rebbe says the word “Daka” should be with an Alef.

The Frierdiker Rebbe talks about Sifrei Torah he saw where the word “Daka” was written with an Alef! One of those Torahs was in Prague, where there was a Sefer Torah that the Yidden said was checked over by Ezra HaSofer! Another place was in Wurms, where there was a Torah written by R’ Meir M’Rotenburg, also with Daka spelled this way.

 
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SEFER HAMITZVOS

Shiur #49 - Mitzvas Lo Saasei #321

Today in Sefer Hamitzvos we review another mitzvah about Shabbos (Mitzvas Lo Saasei #321): On Shabbos we can’t go more than 2,000 amos (about 1 kilometer, or over a half mile) outside of the city — that’s called Techum Shabbos.

We learn this mitzvah from a posuk in Parshas Beshalach: אַל יֵצֵא אִישׁ מִמְּקֹמוֹ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי

This means, “No person should leave his place on the seventh day.”

The Gemara says that this means not to go more than 2,000 amos outside of the city. The Mechilta (a midrash on the Chumash) also teaches that this posuk is talking about not going out of the Techum Shabbos.

The Gemara in Mesechta Eiruvin teaches us the halachos about this mitzvah, and tells us that if someone does go outside of the Techum Shabbos, they get Malkos.

We are doing this mitzvah again, since the Rambam is about Eiruvin, which is Miderabanan — it doesn’t have a mitzvah from the Torah of its own. So during this set of halachos, we are reviewing some of the mitzvos of Shabbos.

 
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RAMBAM

Hilchos Eiruvin

In Perek Vov, Zayin, and Ches, we learn about an Eruv Techumin. This means that if a person puts some food in a place which is outside of the Techum Shabbos before Shabbos starts, it is counted as if he is there, and it makes his Techum Shabbos only start from 2,000 amos past that place. There are many halachos connected to this, explaining how and when a person can make such an eruv.

To help understand this, the Rambam teaches us how to find out where the Techum Shabbos ends. It needs to be measured from where the city ends. The houses in a city have to be close together. If the houses are too far apart, it might not be counted as a city. In some small towns, the houses are so far apart that a person isn’t allowed to even go more than 2000 amos past his own house!

Now we finish the halachos about Eiruvin, and tomorrow we will IY”H start to learn about the Yomim Tovim!

 
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RAMBAM PEREK ECHOD

Hilchos Teshuvah - Perek Alef

If a person does an aveira, he needs to admit what he did to Hashem. For some aveiros, Hashem will then forgive the person right away, and sometimes will forgive the person on Yom Kippur.

 
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INYANA D'YOMA

Chodesh Elul

We learned a lot of pesukim that start with the letters of Elul! Today, let’s learn another one. The sefer Megaleh Amukos writes that the letters of Elul also stand for the words of the Chachomim, “Oy LeRasha, V’Oy LeShcheino” — “Oy! for a Rasha, and oy! for his neighbor!”

These words explain that things don’t go so good for a Rasha — and someone who lives near him can also end up with problems because he spends so much time with a Rasha.

So why would we want to say that this Maamar Razal is the letters of Elul!? It doesn’t sound like a good thing!

The Rebbe explains this, and the connection between Chodesh Elul and Chodesh Av, the month before. According to what the Rebbe explains, we can understand that this IS a good thing! When a person does Teshuvah, he says “OY!” When a person says “OY!” and does teshuvah for something he did that was like a Rasha, it makes the people near him (his neighbors) want to do Teshuvah too — “OY!”

So really, this Maamar Razal is a very good one! When we use the month of Elul to do teshuvah, it helps others do teshuvah too!

See Shaarei Hamoadim Chodesh Elul, p. 46

 

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TEFILLAH

Yehi Chevod

At the beginning of Pesukei Dezimra we say a bracha, the bracha of Boruch She’amar. This way we start (and later end) Pesukei Dezimra with a bracha.

The main part of Pesukei Dezimra (as the Chachomim set it up) is the last six kapitelach of Tehillim. These kapitelach are the main praise of Hashem which prepare us for speaking to Hashem in Shemoneh Esrei!

The Chachomim also added later some other paragraphs to Pesukei Dezimra.

One of them is the paragraph after Boruch She’amar, which starts with the posukYehi Chevod.”

Yehi Chevod has 18 sentences, mainly pesukim from Tehillim. In Yehi Chevod, we speak about how we should have bitachon in Hashem, who will save us from whatever is bothering us. Yehi Chevod helps put us into a good mood, so that we are happy and free of worries! This way we will be able to praise Hashem with our whole heart!

 
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HALACHOS HATZRICHOS

Order of Brachos

If we are about to eat a bunch of different foods, we need to figure out which foods to make a bracha on first!

Before we start, we make sure that we don’t have any fruits from the Shivas Haminim. There are special halachos with the Shivas Haminim, which often change the order. We will IY”H learn their special halachos later.

The first thing we do is to figure out if we have foods that are more than one bracha. If we do, we start going through each bracha in order: Mezonos, Hagafen, Ha’eitz and Ha’adamah (these two brachos are together for the order of brachos), and then Shehakol.

Then after we know which bracha comes first, we look at the foods that have the same bracha. One bracha at a time, we figure out which food we should choose to make the bracha on. We try to make the bracha on the most important food of each bracha:

1) Whole — We look to see if we have a food that is WHOLE, not cut up or broken. That is considered the most important food, and we make a bracha on that food.

What if we don’t have anything that is whole, or we have more than one whole food to choose between? Then we go on to the next question:

2) Choviv — Which of these foods with the same bracha is most important to US? Which do we like more in general, or want to eat more now? We choose this food to say a bracha on.

For the order of brachos, we put Ha’eitz and Ha’adamah together, even though Ha’eitz is more specific. If the food is whole or more important to us, we make that bracha first.

But if none of the food is more Choviv to us, we say Ha’eitz before Ha’adamah.

See Birchos Hanehenin Perek Yud

לעילוי נשמת הרה״ח ר׳ דניאל יצחק ע״ה בן ר׳ אפרים שי׳ מאסקאוויץ
שליח כ"ק אדמו"ר נשיא דורנו למדינת אילינוי

 
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GEULAH U'MOSHIACH

There Will Be No More War!

The Navi Micha lived at the same time as the Navi Yeshaya, before the Churban of the first Beis Hamikdash.

When Hashem sends a message through a Navi, the Navi tells the Yidden what he saw. Sometimes, Hashem showed the same thing to both Yeshaya and Micha! When we look at these pesukim, we see that each Navi used almost exactly the same words to tell the Yidden what Hashem showed them.

Here is a nevuah about the Geulah that we learned from Yeshaya, this time the way Micha saw it:

וְשָׁפַט בֵּין עַמִּים רַבִּים וְהוֹכִיחַ לְגוֹיִם עֲצֻמִים עַד רָחוֹק וְכִתְּתוּ חַרְבֹתֵיהֶם לְאִתִּים וַחֲנִיתֹתֵיהֶם לְמַזְמֵרוֹת לֹא יִשְׂאוּ גּוֹי אֶל גּוֹי חֶרֶב וְלֹא יִלְמְדוּן עוֹד מִלְחָמָה

Veshafat Bein Amim RabimMoshiach will judge any arguments between the many nations of the world

Vehochiach LeGoyim Atzumim Ad Rachok — And will tell the strong and the faraway nations to change the way they are acting.

Now the nations won’t have any reason to fight with each other anymore, since Moshiach will have told them what is right and what is wrong! Now what will they do with their weapons?

Vechitsu Charvoseihem Le’itim — They will bend their swords into plows for their fields

Vechanisoseihem Lemazmeiros — And they will bend their spears into pruning hooks!

(Pruning hooks are poles with a curved knife at the end, to cut off extra branches from trees so they will grow better.)

Lo Yis’u Goy El Goy Cherev — No nation will lift up their swords to fight with each other anymore,

Velo Yilmedun Od Milchama — And they won’t even learn about or practice fighting, since they will all know that there will NEVER be another war!

See Micha perek Daled posuk Gimmel

 
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