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CHUMASH

Parshas Shelach - Chamishi with Rashi

We are learning about what Yidden will bring together with a korban when they come to Eretz Yisroel.

Hashem is telling the Yidden some of the mitzvos that are kept in Eretz Yisrael, which they will be happy to hear about, since their children are going there. One of the mitzvos is about korbanos: When we bring a korban, it’s not just an animal — we also bring a Korban Mincha (flour and oil) and nesech (wine).

Today we finish learning about how much flour, oil, and wine to bring with every korban. A lamb or goat needs the least amount, the ram needs an in-between amount, and a bull, ox or cow need the most!

(Can you find exactly how much flour, oil, and wine we need for each of these groups of animals in the Chumash?)

 
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TEHILLIM

119 (second half)

Today’s Tehillim is the second half of the longest kapitel in the whole Tehillim, Kapitel Kuf-Yud-Tes!

In today’s Tehillim there is a very special posuk that teaches us how we can keep Shabbos ALL WEEK LONG! “Nochalti Eidvosecha LeOlam Ki Seson Libi Heima” — “I have Your mitzvos forever, because they are the joy of my heart!”

How can we have a mitzvah FOREVER? Many mitzvos have only a certain times, like Shabbos and Yom Tov which are for specific days.

The Rebbe explains that even though we can’t keep Shabbos in the middle of the week, we can still “have the mitzvah” all the time! If a mitzvah is the “joy of your heart” because we love Shabbos and think about it all the time (like we say in davening, “Hayom Yom Chamishi BeShabbos”), then we are keeping the mitzvah of Shabbos all week long!

This is true with ALL mitzvos — even the mitzvos that we only do when we have a Beis Hamikdash. If we think about the Geulah and the time when we’ll have a Beis Hamikdash and learn their halachos now, then we have these mitzvos with us in our hearts all the time!

See Likutei Sichos chelek Lamed-Beis, p. 127

 
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TANYA

Shaar Hayichud Veha'emunah Perek Ches

In the first chelek of Tanya, the Alter Rebbe explains to us how to serve Hashem with feelings of Ahava and Yirah (love and fear of Hashem). Just like when you love someone, you need to know something about them first, we also have to know something about Hashem in order to have Ahava and Yirah. First, we need to understand about Hashem as much as we are able to know, and strengthen our Emunah (belief) for what we can’t understand. These are the first things we need to have to bring out the feelings of Ahava and Yirah which are in our neshama.

In Shaar Hayichud Veha’emunah, we are learning how to fill our minds with the knowledge of Hashem as much as we can (which is also a mitzvah for itself), and to have Emunah for what we are not able to understand. This is what Shaar Hayichud Veha’emunah means — the gate to understanding the oneness (Yichud) of Hashem, and Emunah.

Hashem gave us kochos in our neshama through which we can learn to understand Hashem — because these come from and are an expression of Hashem’s kochos!

- For example, just like with our sechel we can know things, Hashem knows everything in the world with Hashem’s Daas, and that is what gives it chayus! (That’s called Sovev Kol Almin.)

- Just like when we are kind we share with others, Hashem uses His midah of chesed to share His goodness in the world.

- Just like we use our gevurah to hide the way we feel from others, Hashem uses His midah of gevurah to hide Himself so we won’t be able to see Hashem and the world will be able to exist.

- Even though we could just talk all day, we say specific words to give other people a specific message. The same way, Hashem has a koach which is Ein Sof, but He uses specific words (the Asara Maamaros) with the midah of Malchus to make each part of the world look like the way we see it.

Even though these mashalim the way we understand them are not at all the way they are by Hashem, they still help us to understand a little bit about Achdus Hashem in our minds.

But there is one thing that is VERY different by Hashem, and we have no mashal for it! What we know, what we feel, what we say, and what we do are all different things. Also, if we learn something new, it means that now we know MORE — something changed.

But with Hashem, it’s not that way! “Ata Hu Ad Shelo Nivra Haolam, Ata Hu Mishenivrah Haolam” — after the world was created, it is just like before — nothing changed. And all of the kochos of Hashem are not separate things, they are all one, because Hashem is One! This is something that every Yid believes, even though we can’t understand it.

That’s what we are learning about in this part of Tanya. First we learn as much as we can tu understand Achdus Hashem using the mashalim Hashem put inside of us and in the world. But when we run out of mashalim, we use our emunah to know that “Hashem Echad!”

 
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HAYOM YOM

Chof-Vov Sivan

Hashem let Korach’s sons live to give them a chance to do teshuvah! No matter how hard it is, as long as we are alive, we are able to do teshuvah.

In Parshas Korach, we learn about how Korach and his sons made a machlokes against Moshe. Hashem punished them, and they were swallowed into a pit in the ground. Korach himself died, but in Parshas Pinchas we learn that Korach’s sons stayed alive.

We might think that Korach’s children getting swallowed up in the ground was just a punishment, but it was really also a big bracha from Hashem: Because they were still alive, they had a chance to do teshuvah. Later they came out of the ground and continued to live with Moshe Rabbeinu and the rest of the Yidden.

The same is true with each of us: Sometimes because of things we did, we end up in an uncomfortable place. But this is a bracha from Hashem — it brings us to do teshuvah, which is something we can only do in this world, while we are alive!

 
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SEFER HAMITZVOS

Shiur #318 - Mitzvas Lo Saasei #279, #277, #275, #278, #273

Today we learn 5 mitzvos for a judge to keep, to make sure he is judging according to the rules of the Torah:

1) (Mitzvas Lo Saasei #279) A judge may not have rachmanus on someone who hurt or killed someone else and needs to pay a knas. He needs to judge him according to the halacha, and not say “he can’t afford it,” or “he made a mistake.”

We learn this mitzvah from a posuk in Parshas Shoftim: וְלֹא תָחוֹס עֵינֶךָ נֶפֶשׁ בְּנֶפֶשׁ עַיִן בְּעַיִן שֵׁן בְּשֵׁן יָד בְּיָד רֶגֶל בְּרָגֶל

2) (Mitzvas Lo Saasei #277) Don’t judge in a way that a poor person wins if he doesn’t really deserve it. Don’t use this as a way to give tzedakah to the poor person! Tzedakah is a separate thing, but the judgment has to be correct and fair.

We learn this mitzvah from a posuk in Parshas Mishpatim: וְדָל לֹא תֶהְדַּר בְּרִיבוֹ

3) (Mitzvas Lo Saasei #275) Don’t be nicer to any of the people in Beis Din, even if they’re more important — treat them all the same. Don’t say “he’s a rich or respected person, how can I make him lose?”

We learn this mitzvah from a posuk in Parshas Kedoshim: וְלֹא תֶהְדַּר פְּנֵי גָדוֹל

The details of this mitzvah are explained in many places in Mesechta Sanhedrin and Mesechta Shevuos.

4) (Mitzvas Lo Saasei #278) Don’t judge against someone just because you know he’s a rasha — judge each case by itself, and see if the halacha says he should be punished.

We learn this mitzvah from a posuk in Parshas Mishpatim: לֹא תַטֶּה מִשְׁפַּט אֶבְיֹנְךָ בְּרִיבוֹ

5) (Mitzvas Lo Saasei #273) Don’t do anything different than the Torah says when you pasken. The Torah tells us how make someone innocent or guilty, and the judge has to follow each of those halachos exactly.

We learn this mitzvah from a posuk in Parshas Kedoshim: לֹא תַעֲשׂוּ עָוֶל בַּמִּשְׁפָּט

 
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RAMBAM

Hilchos Sanhedrin

In today’s Rambam, we learn about when the Beis Din gives malkos to someone to punish them for certain aveiros.

In Perek Tes-Zayin, we learn about how malkos are given. We learn that the person who gives malkos should be very smart, but not very strong — because the halacha is that he has to hit as hard as he can, and we don’t want the person to be hurt more than they need to be.

Perek Yud-Zayin teaches us how many malkos to give. We try to figure out how many a person can handle, and only give that many. Because of the way malkos are given (1 on the front, then one on the back on each shoulder), we only give a number that we can divide by 3, like 9 or 12 or 18. If a person can only handle 11, we round down to 9, not up to 12!

Perek Yud-Ches tells us about the kinds of aveiros that make a person deserve malkos. These aveiros are all from the Torah, but a Beis Din can give Makas Mardus, another kind of malkos, for doing an aveira Miderabanan.

 
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RAMBAM PEREK ECHOD

Hilchos Avel - Perek Hey

Perek Hey teaches halachos about aveilus, how a person acts when a close relative passes away.

 
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INYANA D'YOMA

Hachana L'Gimmel Tammuz

The Gemara explains that after the Beis Hamikdash was destroyed, the Shechinah can be found in the shuls, but is found in the strongest way in the shul of the Nasi Hador.

After the Beis Hamikdash was destroyed, the Shechinah couldn’t rest there anymore as it did before.

Part of the Shechinah now rests in every single shul in the entire world. But, the Gemara says, the strongest part of the Shechinah goes to the shuls of the leaders of the Yidden!

For example, the Gemara talks about how after the Churban, the Shechinah moved to Bavel, where the greatest tzadikim were then.

When Moshiach comes, the Shechinah will return to the Beis Hamikdash from these special shuls!

In our time, the strongest part of the Shechinah rests in the shul of the Nasi Hador, in 770, the Rebbe’s shul.

Very soon, when Moshiach will come, the Shechinah will come from there to the Beis Hamikdash! And when every shul goes to Yerushalayim to be connected to the Beis Hamikdash, the special shuls of all time, and of course 770, will be the closest.

From here we can see how special it is to daven, learn Torah, and farbreng in the Rebbe’s shul in 770!

See Kuntres Beis Rabbeinu Shebebavel 5752 (Hebrew or English)

 

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TEFILLAH

Ribono Shel Olam Hareini Mochel

R’ Nechunya ben Hakana was a rich, but humble Talmid Chochom, who lived at the time of the second Beis Hamikdash. He became one of the first Tannaim, the Chachomim who taught the Mishna. He wrote a sefer on Kabbalah (called the Sefer HaBahir), and also the tefillah of Ana Bekoach, which we say in many places in davening.

The Gemara says that R’ Nechunya ben Hakana lived for a very long time. His students once asked him, “What zechus do you have that you have lived for so long?”

R’ Nechunya answered that it is because of three things that he does:

1) He would not take kavod at the expense of someone else.

The Gemara gives an example of this kind of behavior: R’ Huna was once walking back from work, carrying his shovel over his shoulder. One of his Talmidim saw, and wanted to take the shovel from him — he didn’t think it was kavodik for a Talmid Chochom like R’ Huna to be carrying a shovel himself! R’ Huna said, “If you are used to carrying shovels, you can hold it for me. But if you are not the kind of person who usually will go around with a shovel, than let me carry it. I don’t want my kavod to be more important than your kavod!”

2) He never went to sleep when he was upset at someone. First he forgave the person, and then went to sleep.

The Gemara gives an example of this from how Mar Zutra acted: Every night, before he went to sleep, he would say: “I forgive anyone who made me upset!”

3) He never fought about money — instead, he just forgave the money that was owed to him.

The Gemara brings an example of this kind of thing from Iyov: When Iyov went shopping, he wouldn’t ask for the change if the storekeeper didn’t give it to him. He didn’t want to make a fight about money.

In the first paragraph of Kriyas Shema She’al Hamitah, we forgive anyone that we are upset at. We follow the example of R’ Nechunya ben Hakana (and Mar Zutra), and first say that we are mochel anybody who may have done anything to upset us in any way.

See Gemara Megillah 28a, cited in “Mesechta Shel Tefillah” p. 244

 
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HALACHOS HATZRICHOS

Lo Sisna Es Achicha Bilvavecha

Estie is a very good student in school. She sits quietly in class and always tries her best. On Tuesday, her Morah was asking a lot of quiz questions to the girls. Even though Estie kept on raising her hand, her Morah didn’t call on her once! Morah called on Raizy three times, and Shaindel twice, but didn’t call on Estie at all.

Estie feels very hurt. She feels upset at her Morah for ignoring her the whole day!

Did you know that staying upset at someone else is an aveira? There is a Mitzvas Lo Saasei in the Torah, “Lo Sisna Es Achicha Bilvavecha,” you are not allowed to hate another Jew in your heart. (Taking revenge or doing something to hurt him because you are hurt is a separate aveira. The Torah tells us that even just having the feeling of being upset is already an aveira!)

So what do you do if someone did something to hurt you?

In Shulchan Aruch, it says that you should go to the person, and ask him why he did what he did. For example, Estie could ask, “I noticed that you didn’t call on me today, was there a reason why?”

This way, the other person can explain why he did it or apologize, and you won’t be upset at him anymore.

If you want to be mochel the other person and not bring it up to him, you are allowed to. (In fact, it is called Midas Chassidus.) The main thing is not to hold the hurt feeling in your heart.

That is what we just learned, that before we say Kriyas Shema She’al Hamitah when we go to sleep, we first are mochel anyone who might have hurt us.

See the Alter Rebbe’s Shulchan Aruch, siman 156, se’if vov

לעילוי נשמת הרה״ח ר׳ דניאל יצחק ע״ה בן ר׳ אפרים שי׳ מאסקאוויץ
שליח כ"ק אדמו"ר נשיא דורנו למדינת אילינוי

 
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GEULAH U'MOSHIACH

Coming Back to Yerushalayim

The Navi Yeshayahu is speaking to Yerushalayim, and telling Yerushalayim about the Geulah!

שְׂאִי סָבִיב עֵינַיִךְ וּרְאִי כֻּלָּם נִקְבְּצוּ בָאוּ לָךְ בָּנַיִךְ מֵרָחוֹק יָבֹאוּ וּבְנֹתַיִךְ עַל צַד תֵּאָמַנָה

Se’i Soviv Einayich U’re’i — Yerushalayim, lift up your eyes and see what is happening!

Kulam Nikbetzu Va’u Lach — See how the Yidden have gathered together from all over the world, and they have come to you!

Banayich Meirachok Yavo’u — Your sons, the Yidden, will come back, even from far away.

Uvnosayich Al Tzad Teiamana — And your young daughters will be carried back to you!

Yerushalayim will again see how all of the Yidden will come back to be there in Hashem’s special city.

See Yeshayahu 60:4, with Rashi, Metzudas Dovid and Metzudas Tzion

 
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