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Economics and Business Educators of NSW

From the President - Joe Alvaro

29  July 2015

Dear EBE NSW Members,

New EBE NSW Board members

Recently two teachers joined the EBE NSW Board of Directors. At the EBE Board of Directors meeting on 15 June 2015, Ms Joean Borg was elected to fill a vacant Director position on the EBE NSW Board. Joean teaches at Ascham School. At the EBE Board of Directors meeting on 27 July 2015, Mr Glenn Walker was elected to fill a vacant Director position on the EBE NSW Board. Glenn teaches at Knox Grammar School.

We welcome Joean and Glenn to the EBE NSW Board.

New Business Educators Australasia President

At the 2015 Business Educators Australasia Annual General Meeting on 27 and 28 June 2015, Mr Tony Kuc from the Victoria Commercial Teachers Association was elected as President of our national subject association, Business Educators Australasia. EBE NSW congratulates Tony as he takes up this important position leading our national subject association into the future.

The AGM saw the retirement of Ms Bronwyn Hession as BEA President and BEA Councillor for EBE NSW. Bronwyn has been the President of BEA for the last three years and led the organisation during a period which saw significant developments with regards to the ACARA Australian Curriculum: Economics and Business and ACARA Australian Curriculum: Civics and Citizenship. Her knowledge, skills and experience were invaluable during these curriculum developments. Before her term as President, Bronwyn served on the BEA Board as BEA Councillor for EBE NSW. EBE NSW thanks Bronwyn for all her effort and time, representing NSW Economics, Business Studies, Legal Studies and Commerce teachers at the national level. Bronwyn will continue her role as EBE NSW Director. EBE NSW President Joe Alvaro will be the new BEA Councillor for NSW.

Immediate past President of BEA Bronwyn Hession (left) with new BEA President Tony Kuc (right)

EBE NSW conducts HSC Business Studies and Legal Studies student seminars at 2015 Careers Expos

On the 31st May 2015 EBE NSW President Joe Alvaro presented two student seminars at the “HSC and Careers Expo 2015” at the Royal Hall of Industries, Moore Park, Sydney. “HSC Business Studies – Exam Preparation” and “HSC Legal Studies – Exam Preparation” were the two seminars presented on the day. Both sessions enabled HSC Business Studies and Legal Studies students and their parents to gain valuable exam strategies as they prepare for their upcoming examinations.

EBE NSW President Joe Alvaro presents an EBE NSW student seminar the “HSC and Careers Expo 2015” on 31 May 2015

On the 21 June 2015, the above two seminars were again presented by EBE NSW President Joe Alvaro at the “Western Sydney Careers Expo 2015” at the Sydney Showground, Sydney Olympic Park.

EBE NSW President Joe Alvaro presents an EBE NSW student seminar the “HSC and Careers Expo 2015” on 21 June 2015

Upcoming EBE NSW PD courses

1. Simulation as a Teaching Method in Business Studies
Date: Wednesday 17 June 2015  Rescheduled for Thursday 6 August 2015
Time:  4.25pm – 7.15pm
Venue: S P Jain School of Global Management, 5 Figtree Drive, Sydney Olympic Park, NSW
Cost: EBE NSW members: Free :: Non-members: $30.00
BOSTES NSW endorsed?: Yes

Economics and Business Educators NSW , in association with S P Jain School of Global Management, is offering Business Studies teachers an opportunity to explore simulation as  a teaching method in Business Studies.  A typical business makes hundreds of decisions on a daily basis. The teaching method of simulation can give students  the skills and experience they need to make the right decisions. The Harvard Leadership Simulation focuses on how teams make complex decisions when critical information is distributed unevenly among members and when members have partially conflicting goals. Sophisticated computer software simulates the real world and enables participants to practice in a safe environment and learn from the mistakes made.

>> Further details and registration form
2. Teaching the HSC course (Year 12) in Business Studies, Economics or Legal Studies for the first time?

Date: Monday 17 August 2015
Time: 4.15pm – 7.30pm
Venue: Department of Education & Communities NSW Building - 3B Smalls Road, Ryde NSW 2112
Cost: EBE NSW members: $44.00 :: Non-members: $66.00
BOSTES NSW endorsed?: Yes

This course has been designed specifically for:
  • beginning teachers and experienced teachers who are teaching the Board of Studies, Teaching and Educational Standards NSW (BOSTES NSW) HSC Course (Year 12) in Business Studies, Economics or Legal Studies for the first time.
  • teachers who may have already taught one of these courses in the past but who need a refresher course.
  • teachers who intend to teach one of these courses in the near future.
>> Further details and registration form

3.  Current Economic Events and Monetary Policy
Date: Tuesday 1st September 2015
Time: 4.25pm – 6.00pm
Venue: The Reserve Bank of Australia, 65 Martin Place, Sydney NSW 2000

This information evening will be presented by Merylin Coombs, Deputy Head of Economic Analysis Department from The Reserve Bank of Australia. During this professional development event Economics teachers will be able to gain an update on current economic events and increase their understanding of monetary policy at the bank that conducts monetary policy, The Reserve Bank of Australia. Teachers will also be able to ask questions during the Q&A session. This will be an excellent opportunity to gain valuable, up to date information to share with your HSC Economics students as they approach the 2015 BOSTES HSC Examination.

>> Further details and registration form

4.  Field Trip to CHOICE Lab and Testing Facility 
Date: Wednesday 23 September 2015 (First week of the end of Term 3 school holidays)
Time: 10.30am - 1.00pm
Venue: 57 Carrington Road, Marrickville NSW 

Would you like a guided tour of the CHOICE Lab and Testing Facility to deepen your understanding of the subject matter in the Legal Studies, Business Studies and/or Commerce syllabuses? CHOICE, the public face of the Australian Consumers' Association, is used in classrooms across NSW as a teaching and learning resource by teachers of Business Studies, Legal Studies and Commerce. During this experiential professional development course, participants will increase their understanding of how CHOICE protects consumers as a non-legal mechanism and how CHOICE tests hundreds of products each year.

>> Further details and registration form

Save these dates - Business Educators Australasia Biennial National Conference 2016 – “Thinking, Teaching, Doing Business” 29 September 2016 – 30 September 2016

The BEA national biennial conference – “Thinking, Teaching, Doing Business” will be held on 29 September 2016 and 30 September 2016 at West Point Convention Centre in Hobart, Tasmania. Visit the BEA website at to join the mailing list for regular updates (Go to “Events”, then “Conferences”). Here you will also find some of the presentations from the 2014 BEA Biennial National Conference: Navigating Across Horizons held in Fremantle, Western Australia, including my presentation titled, "The Australian Consumer Law: A young Peoples' Friendly Guide Using a Real World Approach".

BOSTES NSW - Consistent Teacher Judgement workshops

The BOSTES NSW Consistent Teacher Judgements workshops are designed for classroom teachers from Year 1 to Year 11 and school executive staff. The Consistent Teacher Judgement Workshop is designed to enhance teacher understanding of the standards-referenced framework which underpins curriculum development, assessment and reporting in NSW. It will assist with further developing teachers’ skills in achieving consistent judgements and grade allocation, as well as empowering schools to lead learning within their own school. The workshops are free and are being held across NSW on various dates.

Completing the Consistent Teacher Judgment Workshop will contribute three hours of QTC Registered PD addressing 5.3.2, 6.2.2, 6.3.2 from the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers towards maintaining Proficient Teacher Accreditation in NSW.

>> More details available at

Student competitions

1. 2015 CPA Plan Your Own Enterprise (PYOE) Competition
EBE is proud to be partnering with the Business Educators Australasia and CPA Australia again to present the CPA Australia Plan Your Own Enterprise (PYOE) competition. The CPA Australia PYOE competition encourages secondary school students to apply their business education to a real life scenario.

Participants are asked to devise a creative enterprise idea and submit a business plan, explaining how their great idea could become a profitable business.

For teachers, the competition is a valuable tool to enhance the business education curriculum. For students, it helps to build valuable work and life skills. Students can enter as a group or as an individual.

This competition can be incorporated into either Year 10 Commerce (Business topics) and Year 11 Business Studies (Business Planning). Click here for a sample Year 11 Business Studies Assessment Task, which you can use and modify for your school.

Entries are due by Wednesday September 2 (Term 3, Week 8), to:
Economics and Business Educators NSW, 3B Smalls Road, RYDE NSW 2112
P: 02 9886 7786 | E:
NSW winners will be recognised at the NSW PYOE awards ceremony on 7 October 2015. The national PYOE awards ceremony will be held on 14 October 2015 in Melbourne.

Competition prizes are:
Division one – Winning student
• $2,500 cheque courtesy of CPA Australia

Division one – School of winning student
• Complimentary school membership to Victorian Commercial Teachers Association
• $250 of books courtesy of Business Educators Australasia

Division two – Winning group
• $1,000 cheque courtesy of CPA Australia

Division two – School of winning group
• Complimentary registration and airfare to VCTA’s Comview Conference 2015 courtesy of the Victorian Commercial Teachers Association
Each participant will receive a certificate for their job portfolio.

>> Competition website
>> Entry form
2. 2015 NSW Department of Fair Trading Money Stuff Challenge
Entries for the  2015 NSW Department of Fair Trading Money Stuff Challenge are due on  Friday 31 July 2015 (online entries).

>> More information on the 2015 Money Stuff Challenge

3. 2015 Schools ASX Sharemarket Game – Game 2
Registration is now open for the 2015 Schools ASX Sharemarket Game (Game 2).  Game play will begin on 20 August 2015. You will find reports on past winners of the competition and strategies they used to win, in past editions of “The EBE Journal – Journal of the Economics and Business Educators NSW” (available on the EBE NSW website).

>> More information on the 2015 Schools ASX Sharemarket Game
4. National Financial Literacy Competition – 2015  BOQ ESSI Money Challenge
Why not challenge your students to put their financial knowledge to the test.
The BOQ ESSI Money Challenge turns the normal ESSI Money game into a national competition for just two weeks, from Monday 31 August 2015 until Friday 11 September, 2015. Students not only compete against their classmates, but against others from around Australia!
Students can play the BOQ ESSI Money Challenge for their chance to win a $1000cash deposit into a BOQ Web Savings Account, PLUS a bonus $4000 cash deposit into a BOQ Everyday Business Account for their school!
Teachers must be registered as a Member of the Financial Basics Foundation in order to register a class to enter the BOQ ESSI Money Challenge 2015.
>> More information on the National Financial Literacy Competition 

5. “$20 Boss” - Opportunity for students to run a business
Like our EBE membership, The Foundation for Young Australians are relentlessly optimistic about the potential of our nation’s young people. FYA collaborates with partners to deliver innovative programs embedded in evidence based research.
“$20 Boss” is the ultimate start-up challenge for school students. Developed to spark creativity, innovative thinking and entrepreneurship, this program gives every student a chance to build a small business from the ground up, tapping into their incredible potential. The program gives secondary school students twenty dollars to start their own business, then through hands-on experience these mini-entrepreneurs will plan, budget, market and run their business idea building innovation, enterprise and financial literacy skills in the process.

The $20 Boss initiative is part of Foundation for Young Australian’s Unlimited Potential commitment to young Australians to back young people to contribute and lead change. This important initiative is also supported by The Victorian Government as a founding partner, NAB in their commitment to supporting small business in Australia and our friends at Education Changemakers as they unleash teacher-led innovation. To find out more or register your Commerce, Economics, Business Studies and Legal Studies students for this wonderful opportunity, visit

Education Changemakers are also giving a team of 5 teachers the opportunity to attend EC15, a national gathering of innovative teachers. Just select Education Changemakers from the drop down menu when registering your school for $20 Boss to be in the running.

BOSTES NSW job vacancies

1. 2016 Examination Committee Members – Economics, Business Studies, Legal Studies
The examination committee develops the examination paper(s) and marking guidelines for the course(s) for which it is responsible. Where possible, each examination committee has a balance of secondary teachers and tertiary educators. Committees have representation from government and non-government schools and gender balance, where feasible. The number of committee meetings will depend on the nature of the paper(s) but will involve a minimum of eight days. Meetings are held at the BOSTES office, and last a full day from 9.00 am to 4.00 pm. Training will be provided. Committee members need to be available from November 2015 to the end of June 2016.
>> Applications close on 24 August 2015. Full details on the BOSTES NSW website.

2. 2016 Assessors – Economics, Business Studies, Legal Studies
As part of the examination development process, draft examinations are assessed by teachers who have recent experience teaching the course. The role of an assessor is to provide an independent assessment of the examination paper by evaluating and commenting on it as a subject expert and as an experienced teacher. The assessor works the draft examination paper and provides responses and advice to the examination committee about the appropriateness of examination questions. The 2016 HSC examinations are scheduled to be assessed between March and May 2016. If you anticipate taking extended periods of leave that would make you unavailable during this time, you should not apply.

Applications close on 16 November 2015. Full details on the BOSTES NSW website.

2014 BOSTES HSC Examination Timetable

The BOSTES HSC examinations begin on 12 October 2015 and end on 4 November 2015. Examinations of interest to EBE NSW are listed below:
  • BOSTES HSC Legal Studies Examination – Day 9: 22 October 2015
  • BOSTES HSC Business Studies Examination – Day 13: 28 October 2015 (A Board approved calculator needed)
  • BOSTES HSC Economics Examination – Day 5: 16 October 2015 (A Board approved calculator needed)
>> Further information can be obtained from the BOSTES NSW website.

2015 EBE NSW Trial HSC Examinations now available

The 2015 EBE NSW Trial HSC Business Studies, Economics and Legal Studies examination are now available. Relevant past papers are also available for purchase. The examination papers have been designed by EBE Directors and include suggested answers and marking guidelines. Special discount prices apply to members of EBE NSW.

>> Order form for 2015 Trial HSC papers

HSC Student lectures

1. Economic Literacy Centre 2015 HSC Business Studies Student Conference
Friday 4th September 2015 (9.30am – 3pm), Wesley Conference Centre, 220 Pitt Street, Sydney
Email for more information.

2.   The University of Sydney Centre for Continuing Education is holding the following HSC Exam Preparation Courses:
- HSC Economics Exam Preparation Course – Sunday 6 September 2015 – 1.30pm -5pm
- HSC Business Studies Exam Preparation Course – Sunday 13 September 2015 – 1.30pm – 5pm

>> More information at

2015 HSC students need to use black pen and any part of their answers that are crossed out will NOT be read

BOSTES NSW has told this year’s HSC students to write in black pen and has informed them that any part of their answer that they cross out will NOT be marked.  In “Advice for students about HSC examinations”, students are instructed as follows:
“Write your answers in black pen – pencil may be used where it is specifically directed but make sure that it can be read. Highlighters may be used to highlight text (but NOT during reading time!) but liquid paper is not allowed in the exam room – it wastes time and may smudge and make your work unreadable. If you make a mistake, cross it out. Please note: any part of your answer that you have crossed out will NOT be marked. Remember it is in your interest to ensure that all your answers are clear, legible and easy to read.”
>> More information at Advice to HSC students about examinations - Students Online

2015 Sydney Morning Herald HSC Study Guide

Read study tips articles regarding the 2015 HSC Economics, Business Studies and Legal Studies BOSTES NSW examinations in the 2015 Sydney Morning Herald Study Guide. EBE NSW Director Andrew Athavle was the writer for the “Economics” article.

>> Access the 2015 Sydney Morning Herald Study Guide here.

Teaching and learning resources

1. ACCC resources relating to the Competition and Consumer Act 2010
The ACCC has produced free online teaching and learning resources relating to the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission Act 2010:
- Small business (10 modules)
- Franchisees (5 modules)
- Tertiary students (12 modules) - Pitched at first year university students, but can also be completed by Year 11 and 12 students. Areas covered include misleading sales and advertising practices, social media, pricing laws, business scams, cartels, misuse of market power, product safety and consumer rights.
>> More information can be found at

2. Resources from 2015 UBS HSC Economics Day available now
Resources from the 2015 UBS HSC Economics Day are available here.

3. Resource to help you explain the money problems in Greece
The ABC childrens current affairs “Behind The News” screened the story “Greece in trouble” on 21 July 2015, which includes a student friendly look at the concept of “austerity”.

>> Access Greece in Trouble: 21/07/2015, Behind the News - ABC

Indigenous Australians taking up Accounting as a profession

It can be challenging for Indigenous Australians to enter the accounting profession– or even fully understand what accountants do and the career opportunities it presents. Indigenous Accountants Australia was established to promote accounting as a profession, and provide support to Indigenous students undertaking Business Studies. Indigenous Accountants Australia is supported by the combined network of CPA Australia and Chartered Accountants Australia and New Zealand and joined by some of the major employers in the business world.

>> For more information see 

Please make this website known to your Indigenous students.

Funding grants for women in the education sector

In 2015 Women & Leadership Australia is administering a national initiative to support the development of female leaders across all sectors. From July 1 2015 the initiative will provide women in the education sector with grants for leadership development. More specifically, grant applications are open to women employed in the education sector at two levels. Please click on the preferred program link for details.
  1. Senior Management and Executive level Women Leaders can apply for $12,000 Individual Grants to undertake the Advanced Leadership Program.
  1. Women Managers can apply for $4,500 Individual Grants to undertake the Accelerated Leadership Performance Program.
Should you wish to discuss the initiative in more detail please contact Ian Johnson at the office of the National Industry Scholarship Program, Australian School of Applied Management on 03 9270 9000 or via

>> More information is available at Women and Leadership Australia   

Have your say! Register to vote in the 2015 Quality Teaching Council election

Quality Teaching Council (QTC) elections for the eleven practising teacher/principal positions will take place in the second half of 2015The QTC plays a pivotal role in shaping the future of the teaching profession in NSW. Council members, who are either elected by their peers or appointed by the Minister, are directly involved in developing teacher accreditation policy in NSW. The QTC provides advice to the Board of Studies, Teaching and Educational Standards NSW on a range of matters related to teacher accreditation. The Council also recommends initial teacher education programs for endorsement and endorses providers of continuing professional development for teachers.

>> Further information regarding current membership of the Council

To vote in the QTC Council elections teachers need to be registered on the electoral roll. Teachers who are accredited with an active accreditation status are automatically included on the electoral roll. Others (‘existing teachers’) need to register to be included on the electoral roll.

>> Check your eligibility and register to vote at the BOSTES Teacher Accreditation website.

Registration to vote for the above groups of teachers will close at 12 noon Friday 9 October 2015. For more information contact Julie-Anne Scott, Liaison Officer BOSTES. Email:  :: Phone: 02 9268 6319

>> For ongoing news updates on Teacher Accreditation matters subscribe to Teacher Accreditation enews

The Economic Society of Australia (NSW) Lunchtime Seminar – “Loyalty, Power, and Identity: Integrating Group Processes with Economic Man”

Date: 30 July 2015
Time: 12.15pm for 12.30pm – 1.30pm
Venue: The Reserve Bank of Australia, 65 Martin Place Sydney NSW 2000
Presenter: Associate Professor Gigi Foster (School of Economics at the University of New South Wales)

>> Further details here.

The University of Sydney Free Public Lecture

Indigenous People and Globalisation - A keynote from Victoria Tauli-Corpuz, Special Rapporteur for the Rights of Indigenous Peoples at the United Nations
Date: 30 July 2015
Time: 6pm – 7.30pm
Cost: Free, with registration required
Venue: The University of Sydney
>> More information and to register:

Teacher Study Tours

1. Asia Education Teachers Association Teacher Study Tour – Turkey
21 September 2015 – 3 October 2015
>> More details at

2. Asia Education Foundation – Discover Indonesia
27 September 2015 – 3 0ctober 2015
>> More details at (go to “Programs”)

3. Asia Education Foundation – China for School Leaders
16 October 2015 – 27 0ctober 2015
 >> More details at (go to “Programs”)

2015 NAPCAN National Child Protection Week

In 2015 National Child Protection Week will run from 6 September 2015 – 12 September 2015.

>> See for more details.

Economics and Business News Bites

1.  Westpac Economic Update: 24 July 2015
Westpac Senior Economist Elliot Clarke comments on this week's market events with a focus on Policy Makers and Australian CPI. We also hear about Business Investments and trend growth & unemployment rate. Next week's focus will be the offshore FOMC meeting.

>> Click here to access the update on video (accessed on 27 July 2015).

2. Nestle axes some of its lolly products
Spearmint Leaves and Green Frogs are some of the lollies that have been discontinued by the confectionery firm Allen’s because they are unpopular, according to its parent company, Nestlé.
- Banana
- Milk bottle
- Bounty Bar
- Chocolate covered aniseed ring
- Freckle
- Cherry ripe
- Black cat
- Red frogs
- Pineapple
- Redskin
- Clinkers
- Snakes
- Fantale
They're gone
- Spearmint Leaves
- Green Frogs
- Sherbies
- Oddfellow Mints
- Marella Jubes
- Jelly Tots

- "Spearmint Leaves and Green Frogs killed off in Allen's efficiency drive" in The Guardian
(accessed on 26 July 2015)
- “Is Allen’s axing your favorite?” on 2GB radio website 
(accessed on 26 July 2015)
Syllabus links:
- BOSTES NSW HSC Business Studies Syllabus (2010) – Topic 2 – Marketing
- BOSTES NSW Commerce Syllabus ( 2003) – Option 2 – Promoting and Selling

3. Aldi’s weaknesses
Woolworths and Coles need to target Aldi’s weaknesses – its limited range, lack of service and absence of value added meals – rather than try to compete with the fast-growing discounter on price or private-label products, says a British retail expert. Aldi is gaining market share. Aldi and its European discount rival Lidl, which have been carving up grocery markets in Britain and Spain, stock around 1200 product lines – a fraction of the 30,000-odd lines carried by full-service supermarkets.

Reference: “Duo must hit Aldi’s weak spots” by Sue Mitchell in “The Australian Financial Review” – 28 May 2015
Syllabus link: BOSTES NSW HSC Business Studies Syllabus (2010) – Topic 2 – Marketing

Legal News Bites

1. Tough new laws for child sex offenders
Child sex offenders will now face tougher sentences under legislation passed by the NSW Parliament, NSW Attorney General Gabrielle Upton announced. The NSW Government has delivered on its election commitment to increase the maximum sentence for sexual intercourse with a child under 10 from 25 years to life. Ms Upton said the legislation will help ensure sentences better align with community expectations.

Reference: NSW Government Media release – “Tough new laws for child sex offenders” - Gabrielle Upton, Attorney General – 24 June 2015
Syllabus Link: BOSTES NSW HSC Legal Studies Syllabus (2009) – Part I of the core-Crime

2. All students to learn about domestic violence at high school
A 14-year-old girl wrote to NSW government, weeks after the suicide death of her mother, and asked them to "educate children about domestic violence and how to seek help". Her wish has come true. Changes to the BOSTES NSW 7-10 Personal Development, Health and Education syllabus have been approved. Students who complete the BOSTES NSW Legal Studies course and study the “Family” option already learn about domestic violence.

Reference: “How a 14-year-old domestic violence sufferer changed the NSW Department of Education school syllabus” by Eamonn Duff in “The Sydney Morning Herald”, 3 July 2015
(accessed on 26 July 2015)
Syllabus link: BOSTES NSW HSC Legal Studies Syllabus (2009) – Part III – Options-Family

3. Senate Food Certification Inquiry
On 13 May 2015, the Senate referred an inquiry into third party certification of food to the Senate Economics References Committee for inquiry and report by 30 November 2015. The inquiry will include national labelling standards, investigation into certification fees and consumer information.

>> More information and the terms of reference here

EBE NSW Helpdesk

As always EBE NSW Directors are available for advice and assistance to members in relation to the teaching and learning of Business Studies, Commerce, Economics and Legal Studies. Email

Joe Alvaro
President — Economics and Business Educators NSW

* NOTE: This is the first EBE NSW e-newsletter since the last EBE NSW e-newsletter (Dated 25 May 2015). An EBE NSW e-newsletter was not published in June, 2015.

Looking back

1 July 1951 – Sick and long service leave was introduced into Australia.
2 July 1883 – The Factory Act is passed in Britain to prohibit employment of children under nine in textile factories and those 13-18 years to work no more than 12 hours a day.
12 July 1992 – Pizza Hut banned smoking in more than 180 of its Australian restaurants.
18 July 1914 – The first airmail delivery from Melbourne to Sydney was made.28 July 2015
28 July 1996 – Ivan Milat is sentenced to life jail for seven counts of murder.

Quick statistic from the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2011 Census

The median age of married people in Australia was 50 years and the median age of people never married was 25 years.

Did you know?

* On the Board of Studies, Teaching and Educational Standards NSW Assessment Resource Centre  website there are assessment tasks and work samples for Economics, Business Studies, Legal Studies and Commerce. Go to Assessment Resource Centre: ARC
* NEWS stands for North, East, West, South (compass points)

Attitude to money

“I have been poor and I have been rich. Being rich is better.”
- Sophie Tucker


Learn from the mistakes of others. You can't live long enough to make them all yourself."
- Eleanor Roosevelt, former U.S. first lady and activist

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