Better Health through Better Decisions
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Joshua A. Hemmerich, PhD, Editor-in-chief,
The University of Chicago

Dana Alden, PhD, Deputy Newsletter Editor, University of Hawaii at Manoa,

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From the Editor

by Joshua A. Hemmerich, PhD, Editor-in-chief, The University of Chicago

Greetings and welcome to the Autumn 2014 issue of the Society for Medical Decision Making (SMDM) newsletter! As everyone packs their short sleeved clothes for Miami, the site of our 36th annual meeting, I hope that you will take time out to enjoy this issue and catch up to speed on all of the transpiring events that make SMDM the fantastic organization that it is. Furthermore, as you wait to board your flight, you can take advantage of the newsletter’s convenient webpage links to all of the events, schedules and resources for the North American Meeting that hosts Margaret Byrne, PhD, and Marilyn Schapira, MD, MPH, have planned, including the first ever Women of SMDM Reception on Sunday evening. Once you are on the ground and settled into the hotel in Miami, make sure, when you see them, to congratulate the new officers: President-Elect, Mark Helfand, MD, MPH; Vice President-Elect, Miriam Kuppermann, PhD, MPH; Secretary-Treasurer Elect, Heather Taffet Gold, PhD; and Historian, Bob Beck, MD, as well as the trustees, Lauren Cipriano, PhD, Marieke de Vries, PhD, MA, and Scott LaJoie, PhD, MSPH.

In this issue of the Newsletter, Society President, Murray Krahn, MD, MSc, FRCPC, reflects on the future of the society and how SMDM might become a truly international organization in the next five to ten years.

This newsletter provides not one, but two excellent pieces on statistics and methodology - one from Jarrod Dalton, PhD, about the application of Bayes’ Theorem to the electronic health record, and another from John Friend, PhD Candidate, on the assumption of measurement invariance across human cultures. Both of these pieces provide fascinating and timely looks at research problems and practices going on in our modernizing and culturally diversifying world.

Additionally, you will find a commentary by Laura D. Scherer, PhD, of the University of Missouri on the efforts to build a stronger bridge between SMDM and the Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) through the identification and prioritization of common goals. These efforts are sure to lead to a fruitful collaborations between members of the two societies.

As always you will find important SMDM updates on milestones and accomplishments that reflect the enthusiasm of our members. They also provide very useful news and links to important webinars and surveys that can enhance your work and the operations of our SMDM.  

And please get connected in our social media site “Connect”.  Connect will enable you to build networks with colleagues, collaborators, and mentors/mentees, as well as have an integrated experience between Connect and the SMDM Newsletter so that editorials and other Newsletter material that inspires follow up discussions can easily be initiated in Connect directly from the Newsletter.

As always, please feel free to contact me if you are interested in submitting an editorial, have any comments or suggestions about the Newsletter, or if you would like to be involved on the editorial team. Safe travels to Miami!

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From the President

by Murray Krahn, MD, MSc, FRCPC, University of Toronto

Thinking about the future: ISMDM?

Well, the year has gone by extremely fast, and it will soon be time be time for our annual North American meeting. In my last newsletter offering, I would like to talk about the increasingly international character of our Society. 

The Society began, apparently, in Lee Lusted’s house in Cincinnati in the 1970’s. The earliest members were mostly physicians and nearly all were from the US. It’s not this way anymore. Many of our members are psychologists, health services researchers, statisticians, economists or decision analysts who work in universities or government or industry. Increasingly, also, our members come from Europe, Asia, and South America. As of 2014, 35% of our members come from outside the US, and 29% come from outside North America. Three of our four presidents between 2011 and 15 have been from Europe or Canada. 

We’ve had really successful European meetings now for more than 20 years. And this year we’ve had an extremely promising start to regular meetings in Asia with the first ever Asian SMDM meeting in Singapore. The current plan is to continue annual meetings in North America (including Canada in 2016 and 2018) and biennial meetings in Asia and Europe. 

This level of international activity raises the question of whether we should consider becoming a truly international society, perhaps the International Society of Medical Decision Making. That kind of name change would really signify that the center of gravity is shifting. 

We could even consider holding one annual meeting that alternates between North America, Asia, and Europe, and eventually South America. The International Society for Quality of Life Research (ISOQOL) does this. Health Technology Assessment International (HTAi) does this too. This approach  would reduce the organizational complexity of having multiple meetings in a single year. For example, in 2014, we held meetings in Europe, Asia, and North America. It would also bring a large conference to places where we have the opportunity to grow significantly. 

The downside is financial risk. Most of our long time members are in the US and it may be too costly or infeasible for many of them to travel to international SMDM meetings. Some grants and government policies do not cover international travel. Of course, this argument cuts both ways. When we are in Europe or Asia, more Europeans or Asians can travel domestically. We are also not yet at the point where our international meetings consistently break-even, though the European meeting has most often succeeded both financially and intellectually.

My sense is that it’s still a little too soon to do this. We have to make sure that we can survive financially, as well as keeping all of you who have built and currently sustain the Society on board. But, in another 5 or 10 years with a couple successful Asian meetings behind us and a growing Latin American membership, this will look more feasible. If you have thoughts on this question, please shoot me an email at 

See you all in Miami! 

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Meeting News

36th Annual North American Meeting

Medical Decision Making Among Diverse Populations: Advancing Practice, Policy, and Science

October 18-22, 2014, Miami, Florida

There's just a few more days until the 36th Annual North American Meeting in Miami, Florida. Co-Chairs Margaret Byrne and Marilyn Schapira have put together a rich and diverse program for this year's event!

Key Links

Be sure to check out these links to make the most of your time there:
Agenda at a Glance
Meeting Symposia
Short Courses
Concurrent Sessions
Career Development & Mentoring Opportunities 
Opportunities to Socialize 

Social Media

Whether you can make it or not, be sure to follow #SMDM14 to participate in the conversation and to observe or share your experiences from the meeting. 
 Tweet #SMDM14

Planning Committee 

Our special thanks to the entire 2014 Annual Meeting Planning Committee for all of their work and dedication:
Meeting Co-chairs: Marilyn M. Schapira, MD, MPH and Margaret M. Byrne, PhD (pictured left) 
Scientific Review Committee Co-Chairs: Tanya Bentley, PhD and John F. P. Bridges, PhD
Short Course Committee Co-Chairs: Robert Hamm, PhD and James Stahl, MD, MPH
Awards Committee Chair: Myriam Hunink, MD, PhD
Career Development Co-Chairs: Beate Sander, PhD and Amy Tawfik, HBSc, PhD
Lee B. Lusted Student Prize Co-Chairs: Amber E. Barnato, MD, MPH, MS and John Wong, MD
Social Event Chair: Valerie Reyna, PhD
Social Media Chair: Scott LaJoie, PhD, MSPH
Symposia Co-Chairs: John F. P. Bridges, PhD, Margaret M. Byrne, PhD, David Chartash, Brendan Delaney, MD, Negin Hajizadeh, MD, Elbert Huang, MD, MPH, FAPC, Olga Kostopoulou, PhD, MSc, Marilyn Schapira, MD, MPH, Jamie L. Studts, PhD and Holly Witteman, PhD, 
Women in SMDM: Advancing Careers, Impact and Happiness Chair: Angie Fagerlin, PhD (learn about this special event below)

Special Thanks

SMDM also gratefully acknowledges the following organizations for their support of the 2014 Annual Meeting: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), National Cancer Institute, Amgen, Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, and Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA). Contributions do not imply endorsement of conference content or views expressed in written conference materials and by speakers and moderators.
Complete information can found on the SMDM website. See you there!
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Stay tuned for upcoming announcements about SMDM 2016 meetings in Europe and in the Asia-Pacific Region

The opinions stated in the following commentaries are solely those of the authors and do not reflect the opinions of the Society for Medical Decision Making.

Efforts to Establish Crosstalk between Society for Behavioral Medicine and Society for Medical Decision Making

by Laura D. Scherer, PhD, University of Missouri

Historically, the Society of Medical Decision Making (SMDM) and the Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) have operated in parallel. Each is interested in similar research questions and has a similar goal of conducting empirical research that broadly addresses behavioral and psychological factors related to health. SMDM has been relatively more focused on the factors that impact individual decisions related to health, while SBM has primarily addressed behavioral factors that relate to health promotion. Despite considerable overlap in perspectives and goals, there is surprisingly little communication between these Societies.  

To address this issue, over the past few months a group of interested SBM (Jada Hamilton, Megan Oser, Christine Rini, Erika Waters) and SMDM (Dana Alden, Laura Scherer) members has met monthly with the aim of increasing crosstalk between these two societies. A concrete goal of this Crosstalk Committee has been to develop programming for the SBM and SMDM annual meetings that would be of interest and relevance to both Societies.  Crosstalk Committee discussions led to broad agreement that the topic for these events should be one that both societies have grappled with for years. While several possibilities were listed, we ultimately settled on an issue that is fundamental to our Societies’ shared objective of improving the decisions that individuals make relating to their health: What defines a “good” medical decision?

There is currently little consensus on what an optimal medical decision is, or how to measure it. Moreover, the criteria will likely vary depending on the perspectives and priorities of different stakeholders. Given the importance of this issue for the collective research interests of SBM and SMDM members, the time is right to have an in-depth intellectual discussion about this issue, in which various perspectives are articulated and shared.  Importantly, our goal is to have this discussion in collaboration with members of both SBM and SMDM.
In light of this goal, the Crosstalk Committee is organizing an interactive, cross-disciplinary workshop for the 2015 SBM annual meeting. The workshop will feature representatives of key stakeholder groups, including: physicians (Robert Jacobson), patients (Brian Zikmund-Fisher), decision scientists (Ronald Myers), and health insurance providers (John Baleix). Speakers will provide their perspectives on this important topic by reviewing three case studies of difficult decisions and interacting with the audience. 

In the coming months, we aim to develop a related seminar for the 2015 SMDM conference. We hope that the Committee’s efforts stimulate cross-society discussion of important topics that are of interest and relevance to both groups. This particular issue—what it means to make a “good” decision—is one that psychologists and health professionals have struggled with for years and, as such, begs for conceptual clarity within the context of behavioral medicine research.  We look forward to future efforts to generate exciting discussions and collaboration between SMDM and SBM.  

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Commentary: The opinions stated in the following commentaries are solely those of the authors and do not reflect the opinions of the Society for Medical Decision Making

Bayes’ Theorem and the Modern Electronic Health Record: An “Optimistic” Engagement

by Jarrod E. Dalton, PhD

Jarrod E. Dalton, PhDEven in the early days of clinical decision analysis in the 1960s and 1970s, Milton Weinstein and Harvey Fineberg recognized the value of Bayes’ Theorem for informing medical diagnoses: we start with our prior belief about the probability of disease, and update it to our posterior belief by incorporating evidence from a diagnostic test. [Weinstein, M.C. and H.V. Fineberg, Clinical Decision Analysis. 1980: Saunders].   

Prior beliefs play an important role in assessing the diagnostic value of tests. Suppose there are two patients in the postoperative anesthesia care unit – one seems to be recovering normally, while the other is showing clear symptoms of postoperative myocardial infarction (ST elevation, angina, vomiting, shortness of breath, etc.). A positive troponin-T test can be a life-saver for the first patient, while the test is of little additional diagnostic value for the second.

Bayesian network (BN) modeling is an emerging tool that can extend this concept to exceedingly more complex causal systems in health care. The main advantage of BNs is that, unlike traditional prediction models that require observation of data on all input variables in order to predict an outcome of interest, they can dynamically update predictions of all variables in the system as more and more health data are observed. 

The figure contains an example network for a hypothetical cancer diagnosis problem. Each node represents a variable, and assumed causal links between the variables are represented by arrows. The probability distribution for each node is assumed to be dependent on (only) its parent nodes (if they exist). For example, the conditional probability for cancer varies strongly depending on both the smoking status and the obesity status of the patient. Sensitivity and specificity of the blood and MRI tests can be gathered from the conditional probability tables for each node. Finally, the probability of death (say, within 10 years) is 2% if there is no cancer and 10% if there is cancer.

The conditional probability table for cancer represents our prior belief in the presence of the disease (before the tests), absent observation on either tests’ result. For example, we would assign a prior probability of cancer of 40% for an obese smoker. We can also obtain prior probability estimates for the other nodes in the network – for instance, the prior probability of death is 0.60(0.02) + 0.40(0.10), or 5.2%. Similarly, if we were to observe a positive blood test result in this patient, we can use belief propagation algorithms to calculate posterior probability estimates for the other nodes in the network. In this case, our belief in the probability of cancer increases from 40% to 72%, our belief in the probability of a positive MRI result increases from 42% to 66%, and our belief in the probability of death increases from 5.2% to 7.8%.  Is a 72% chance of cancer sufficient to initialize treatment, or should the MRI be performed to further reason about the disease?

Although we are currently working on adapting fundamental Bayesian network concepts to decision and cost effectiveness analyses in health care, we will soon be able to monitor the potential diagnostic value of clinical tests for individual patients – in real time. Bayesian networks are therefore an ideal pathway for developing smart testing algorithms that can be directly integrated into electronic health data systems, optimizing costs by reducing uninformative and unnecessary testing and personalizing treatment protocols. 

Successful implementation of Bayesian networks requires a completely interdisciplinary approach.  Considerable input from multiple clinical domains is required in order to specify the structure of the network. Expertise of health economists and health policy researchers is needed in order to evaluate costs associated with tests, procedures and/or outcomes. Finally, integrating the models into clinical practice depends on the involvement of bioinformaticists and decision psychologists. 

Dr. Dalton is an assistant professor of medicine in the Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University, and also a staff statistical informaticist in the Departments of Quantitative Health Sciences and Outcomes Research at Cleveland Clinic.

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Commentary: The opinions stated in the following commentaries are solely those of the authors and do not reflect the opinions of the Society for Medical Decision Making.

Addressing Measurement Invariance in Cross-Cultural Research

by John Friend, PhD Candidate

John FriendAs American society becomes increasingly more diverse, cultural effects on the medical decision making process will continue to be a valuable field of study. In fact, a better understanding of differences and similarities across cultural groups can be used to improve patient-provider communication and, thus, patient-centered care. However, decision making researchers would benefit from assuming that self-report measures across such groups (and others) are prone to measurement biases. 

For instance, suppose you are interested in studying life satisfaction and patient empowerment in Japan and the United States (US). To investigate whether the relationship of life satisfaction to empowerment is stronger among Japanese participants than American participants, you would typically test the mean differences between the two cultural groups on these two constructs. To gather information on these psychological variables in both cultures, you decide to use validated scales found in the literature. Because these scales have been shown to have acceptable psychometric properties in the US, you translate and administer the instrument in Japan. Sounds reasonable enough. 

However, by doing this, you are assuming that the instrument and psychological constructs are operating similarly in Japan and the US, i.e., scale items are similarly understood and constructs are represented on the same measurement scale. In other words, you are assuming measurement invariance across the groups. If you are correct, the comparisons are valid and differences and similarities can be confidently interpreted. If you are incorrect and measurement variance is present, comparisons are unreliable and conclusions drawn are not meaningful. Compared to single group studies, examination of two or more cultural groups is at a much higher risk of different forms of measurement bias. Such bias can easily occur with affective measures as a result of differing interpretations of item content. Other evidence suggests that cultural differences can cause response and instrument bias. For example, some cultural groups tend to more frequently select one of the two extreme scale points (high or low), whereas others are more likely to use the middle points. 

Fortunately, researchers can test for measurement invariance using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Through this approach, it is possible to test at three key hierarchical levels of invariance (and beyond): configural, metric, and scalar. Considered the minimal level, configural invariance indicates that items load on the same latent variable across both cultural groups, and that participants from the different groups conceptualize the construct in the same way. At the next level, metric invariance is achieved when the factor loadings of the indicators do not differ substantially across the groups, suggesting that the latent variables have similar scale intervals across cultural groups. By establishing metric invariance, unstandardized structural path coefficients can be compared across groups to assess differences in the strengths of relationships between antecedent, mediating and outcome constructs in a structural model. Finally, scalar invariance is possible when differences between item and latent means are consistent across the groups. Although full scalar invariance is difficult to achieve, partial is manageable and still allows researchers to more confidently compare mean scores across cultural groups. 

In sum, research across cultures and other groups can offer significant insight into the many ways that group affiliation affects the medical decision making process. While multi-group SEM is one useful statistical tool available to elucidate this relationship, proper steps must be taken to ensure that comparisons and interpretations are valid and reliable. Lack of measurement invariance may lead to dubious conclusions and establishing its presence should be standard practice in medical decision making research involving multiple groups. 

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Congratulations to the New Officers & Trustees!

The Society for Medical Decision Making is pleased to announce the outcome of the recent election for 2014 – 2015 Officers and Trustees. Please join us in welcoming the following members to the Board:



From left to right: President-Elect, Mark Helfand, MD, MPH; Vice President-Elect, Miriam Kuppermann, PhD, MPH; Secretary-Treasurer Elect, Heather Taffet Gold, PhD; and Historian, Bob Beck, MD  




From left to right: Lauren Cipriano, PhD, Marieke de Vries, PhD, MA, (International Trustee) and Scott LaJoie, PhD, MSPH

Our sincerest appreciation to all of the candidates for agreeing to run and to the Nominations Committee for their work developing the slate of nominees: Chair, Scott Braithwaite, Margaret Byrne, Brendan Delaney, Mark Roberts, and Anne Stiggelbout.
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Angie FagerlinWomen of SMDM Reception Planned at Annual Meeting

What have you been up to lately?

by Angie Fagerlin, PhD, University of Toronto

For the first time, the SMDM will convene a “Women of SMDM” reception. This event is designed to offer opportunities for women to discuss professional development topics that are particularly challenging or of concern to women in the workplace. We hope this event initiatives an annual forum in which women of SMDM can address specific professional challenges.

This year’s focus will be on how to respond well to the question, "What have you been up to lately?" Women often have difficulty "bragging" about themselves, so we will discuss approaches to describing recent achievements quickly and with confidence.
A number of SMDM members have read Peggy Klaus' book, Brag! The art of tooting your own horn without blowing it (, and have found it helpful. We will use this book as the basis of our discussion. 

Please join us for skill-building, wine, dessert, and great conversation on Sunday October 19 from 8:30-10:00 (immediately following the poster session). For more information, please contact Angie Fagerlin at Please note that this is a free event (to ensure that all women can attend). However, if you are willing to donate a small amount to help cover the expenses, we would be very grateful. Please see 

Advanced RSVPs are appreciated, but definitely not required ( 
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Elbert HuangUS Policy Committee Update:
Not Much New in D.C.

by Elbert Huang, MD
There is little happening in Washington and there isn’t much hope for anything major happening before 2015. There is no reason to expect any significant policy change and only a modest reason to expect major changes in appropriations. There will not be a government shutdown this fall, since Congress passed a continuing resolution to keep the government funded at 99.95% of its current funding from October 1 through early December.
Congress was away from August 1 through September 8, was in session for two weeks, and now is away until November 11. What might happen in the “lame-duck” session in November and December will be heavily influenced by the results of the November 4 election.
The funding levels for NIH, AHRQ, NLM, and the VA system are all controlled by the continuing resolution. PCORI funding is not affected. PCORI filled some vacancies on its Methodology Committee, released for public comment its draft proposal for conducting peer review of its primary research and public release of its research findings, and revamped its website. Comments will be taken through November 7.
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Member News

Andrea K. Biddle, PhD, has been appointed Executive Director of the Health Research Alliance (HRA), in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. HRA is a consortium of 60 foundations and voluntary health organizations that fund biomedical, clinical, and drug discovery research. She retains adjunct faculty appointments in the UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health and the Eshelman School of Pharmacy.

Nicole Fowler, PhD, has moved from the University of Pittsburgh to Indiana University. In her new role she will be Assistant Professor Medicine and Scientist at the Regenstrief Institute and the IU Center for Aging Research. As an investigator, her research involves medical decision making and the development, testing, and comparison of evidence-based interventions for older individuals with cognitive impairment.

Peder A. Halvorsen, PhD, was promoted to Professor in the Department of Community Medicine, UiT - The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway, starting September 1, 2014.

Nathaniel Hupert, MD, MPH, has been appointed Senior Medical Advisor for Analytic Decision Support at the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA), part of the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR) of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Eirik Ofstad, MD, Akershus University Hospital, Norway, had his first article, "Temporal characteristics of decisions in hospital encounters: A threshold for shared decision making?" published in Patient Education & Counseling. It describes how temporal characteristics of clinical decisions in hospital encounters is distributed across time and space. This distribution fosters sharing and dilution of responsibility between providers, but makes the decision making space hard to access for hospitalized patients.

Benjavan Upatising, PhD, was recently published in the Journal of Smart Homecare Technology and TeleHealth. His coauthored paper, "Telemedicine: an enhanced emergency care program for older adults," outlines current telemedicine models for emergency care (EC) and summarizes their potential benefits to patients and the health care system. In addition, it examines evidence of improved health care outcomes by highlighting the role of telemedicine in reducing hospitalizations and examined patient experiences and satisfaction levels regarding telemedicine health care teams.

Marie-Anne van Stama new member since June, created the illustrations for the massive open online course (MOOC) Dr. Annemarie Zand Scholten produced for the University of Amsterdam, entitled Solid Science: Research Methods. In addition to being a lot of fun, it helped her in designing the PROKEUS-study, a study about the choice of treatment for prostate cancer patients.

On September 10, most PBS stations in the US aired an episode of NOVA titled "Vaccines - Calling The Shots" about vaccine risks, science, and decision making. Brian Zikmund-Fisher, PhD, an SMDM Trustee, was involved in the development of the film and was filmed as one of the on-screen experts. His segments focused on helping parents think about both the risks of vaccines and the risks of remaining unvaccinated in concrete ways. The full episode can be viewed on line at the PBS Website.

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Continue the conversation on-line at SMDM Connect

SMDM Lifetime Contributors

SMDM extends its heartfelt appreciation to members for their charitable contributions over the years. Donations received Oct. 2005 – July 31, 2014. Bold indicates donors since the last e-newsletter.

Raiffa-Kahneman Circle
(Contributions total $5,000 or more)
John Clarke (‘13, ‘14)
Jeremy Goldhaber-Fiebert (‘13)
Mark Helfand (‘05, ‘07, '10, '11)
Joseph King (’06 – ’13)

Pareto Level
(Contributions total $1,000 - $4,999)
Dana Alden ('12 - ‘14)
Michael Barry (’06 - '10)
Dennis Fryback (‘05 - ‘13)
Michael Kattan (’13)
Murray Krahn (’13)
William Lawrence (‘06, '10, '11, ‘13)
David Rovner & Margaret Holmes-Rovner (’05 - ‘13)
Uwe Siebert ('11, ’13, ‘14)
Frank Sonnenberg (‘06, ‘09)
Harold and Carol Sox ('10 - ’13)
Sankey Williams ((‘06, ‘07, ’08, 13)
John Wong (’06 - ’13)

Edwards Level
(Contributions total $750 - $999)
David Meltzer ('07, '09)
Stephen Pauker (‘06, ‘09)
Marilyn Schapira (‘07 - ‘12)
Seema Sonnad (‘06, ‘07, ’09, ’12, ‘13)
Joel Tsevat (‘06, ‘09, '10)

Tversky Level
(Contributions total $500 - $749)
Anirban Basu (’13)
Robert Beck (‘07) 
Scott Cantor & Lisa Stone (‘07 - ’13) 
Kate Christensen (‘09)
Nananda Col (’05 - ‘09)
Neal Dawson (‘05 - ‘13)
Sara Knight (’05 – ‘13)
Kathryn McDonald (‘07, '09, '10)
Jill Metcalf (’07 - ‘13)
David Paltiel ('07, '09)
Mark Roberts (‘08, ’09, ‘13)
Bruce Schackman (’06 - '13)
David Sugano (‘07, ‘09, '10, '11, ‘13)

von Neumann-Morgenstern Level
(Contributions total $250 - $499)
Ahmed Bayoumi (‘06, '08, ‘09, '10, '11, ‘13)
Dena Bravata (‘06, ‘09, '10, '11)
Andy Briggs (‘14)
Randall Cebul (‘06, ‘08, '10)
Mark Eckman (’06, ‘09)
Arthur Elstein (‘06, ‘07, ’09, ‘10) 
Peder Halvorsen ('11 - ‘13)
Don Husereau ('13)
Karen Kuntz (‘09, '11)
Steven Kymes (‘05, ‘06, ‘07, ‘08, ’09, ‘12)
Alan Schwartz (‘07, '10, ’12, ‘13)
James Stahl (‘06, ‘09, '10, ‘12)
Thomas Tape ('10, '11, ‘14)
Robert Wigton ('10, '11, ‘14)

Markov Level
(Contributions total $100 - $249)
Amber Barnato (‘05, ‘07, '11, ‘12)
Cathy Bradley (‘07)
Scott Braithwaite (’09)
Donald Brand (’13)
Linda Canty ('12)
Phaedra Corso (‘06, ‘07, ‘08)
Elena Elkin (‘07)
Magdelena Flatscher-Thöni ('14)
Alan Garber ('10)
Heather Taffet Gold (‘08, '11)
Robert Hamm (‘06, ‘08)
Myriam Hunink (’05 - ‘13)
Esther Kaufmann ('11)
Sun-Young Kim (‘07, ‘08, ’09, ‘13)
Miriam Kuppermann (‘06, ‘07, ‘08, ‘09, '10, ‘12)
Curtis Langlotz ('12)
Lisa Maillart ('10)
Richard Orr (‘05, ‘06)
Roy Poses ('14)
Brian Rittenhouse (‘07)
Ursula Rochau (’14)
Allison Rosen (‘07)
Verena Stühlinger ('14)
Joanne Sutherland (‘08, ‘09)
John Thornbury (‘05)
George Torrance (‘05)
Benjavan Upatising ('13)
Jef Van den Ende ('10)
Brian Zikmund-Fisher (’08 - ‘13)

Bayes Level
(Contributions total up to $100)
Hilary Bekker ('12) 
Eran Bendavid ('11)
Denise Bijlenga (‘08)
Kimberly Blake (‘09)
Rowland Chang (‘06, ‘07)
Carmel Crock (‘09)
James Dolan (‘09)
Arna Dresser ('10, ‘12)
Ted Ganiats (‘05)
Lee Green (‘07, ‘09)
Amit Gupta (‘06)
Michael Hagen ('10)
David Howard (‘09)
David Katz (’08)
Job Kievit (‘09)
Kerry Kilbridge (‘05, ‘07, ‘08)
Sun-Young Kim (’13)
Ivar Sonbo Kristiansen ('10)
Joseph Ladapo ('12, ‘13)
Andrew Scott LaJoie ('10)
Andreas Maetzel (‘09)
Daniel Masica (‘08)
Evan Myers ('12)
Thomas B. Newman ('10)
Jesse D. Ortendahl ('11, ‘13)
Jane Pai ('10)
George Papadopoulos (‘08)
Lisa Prosser (‘08)
Michael Rothberg (‘09, '10, '11, ‘12)
Gillian Sanders (‘07)
Jha Saurabh (‘09)
Ewout Steyerberg (‘06, ‘09, '11, ‘13)
Anne Stiggelbout (‘06)
Carol Stockman (‘05)
Danielle Timmermans (‘07)
Hugues Vaillancourt ('11)
Milton Weinstein (‘09, '11)
Robert Werner (‘08)


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The Fall issue of our Journal, Medical Decision Making, is available for your review.

Copyright © 2014 Society For Medical Decision Making, All rights reserved.

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