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At $23 billion, China is the world's largest ice cream market. Competitors include Mengniu Dairy, Yili, Guanming, and Sanyuan, along with foreign giants like Nestlé and Unilever. US ice cream sales average $7 billion annually. Read full article →

Industrial output rose 9.8% YoY in April, 14.1% in March, sending the two-year average growth to 6.8%, which is 0.6% higher than March. Retail sales rose 17.7% YoY in April, compared with March's 34.2%. The two-year average growth came in at 4.3%. Read full article →

Social media and gaming giant Tencent had a record Q1 profit of $7.4 billion. Tencent draws a third of its revenue from video gaming and that business segment's revenue, up 17% YoY, was fuelled by strong global demand for mobile gaming. Read full article $→

China’s herd has recovered from African swine fever (ASF) and local corn prices are double US prices. China has bought 9.5 million tons of US corn for May alone, and buyers are expected to book 15 million metric tons of U.S. new-crop corn this year. Read full article →

China’s solar PV power generation capacity grew 60% YoY in 2020, adding an impressive 48.2 GWp, beating all estimates and marking six consecutive years as the world’s largest solar PV market. Chinese companies supply 58%, 93%, 75%, 73% of global polysilicon, wafer, cells and modules, respectively. Read full article →

Consumers spent $107.22 billion during a 15-day online shopping festival, for YoY growth of 27%. The festival is a nationwide campaign to boost quality consumption. Revenue from physical commodities surged 25.9% YoY, with Chinese brands accounting for 73.8% of total sales. Read full article →

China added 30,000 new Electric Vehicle-related companies in Q1 2021. President Biden's infrastructure package, which allocates $100 million for EVs, is unlikely to trouble these new entrants. Read full article →

Foreign banks are hiring: Goldman Sachs plans to hire 320 new staff in China, including 70 to focus on investment banking. HSBC will hire 3,000 bankers to focus on wealth management products. Read full article →

A record 9.09 million university students will graduate this year and Vice Premier Sun Chunlan says,  “Go to central and western regions where the country needs you” (and where there are 1.4 available jobs per graduate). Read full article →

Fixed-asset investment (FAI) grew 20% nationwide in Q1, YoY. Compared to 2019, FAI growth was 8%. Investment by the state sector went up 18.6% during the period, while private-sector investment rose 21%. Read full article →

Trade & Travel

A new dataset tracks power plants, roads, rails, ports, intermodal, transmission, and pipelines active across Eurasia since 2006. As illustrated in the map above, it includes over 14,000 projects. Download the data 

The EU's goods trade surged in Q1 and China remained its top trade partner, with imports and exports both increasing 20% YoY. The US followed, with both imports and exports shrinking. Read full article $→

US importers paid 90% of tariff costs on Chinese goods, or 18.5% more for Chinese products subject to the 20% tariff. Chinese exporters receive 1.5% less for the same product. Read full article $→

US exports to China of wine, cotton, log timber and wood have increased over the past year after Beijing blocked those products from Australia. The US is prioritising its own economic interests over its ally’s, despite Antony Blinken's promise that Washington would not leave Australia to face 'economic coercion' from Beijing. Read full article $→

Supplies of Russian agricultural products to China increased by 17.6% in Q1. Trade turnover reached $40.207 billion, 20% higher YoY. The two aim to double 2021 trade to $200 billion. Read full article $→

Presidents Xi and Putin launched construction on four nuclear reactors made with Russian technology: two reactors each in Jiangsu and Liaoning Provinces, set to begin 2026 - 2028. They will be powered by Rosatom's 3G pressurized water reactor technology at a  cost of $1.7 billion per site. Read full article $→

Chinese contractors win the majority of mega projects in Africa. Chinese companies first went to Africa in 1979, and are the dominant force there now. The most interesting architecture in Dar es Salaam is probably a building designed by a Chinese architect and built by a Chinese firm.  Read full article $→

China’s Cross-Border Inter-Bank Payments System (CIPS) has 1171 participating institutions in 200 countries and encompasses over 3400 banking sector financial institutions. Read full article →

Investments for $24.6 billion were sealed at the Fifth Silk Road International Expo in Xi’an:  72 projects in education, modern agriculture, and high-tech industry. Foreign investment projects worth $7.7 billion were also signed and 2,000 envoys and guests from 98 countries attended. Read full article →

Technology & IP

The Zhurong rover touched down May 15 on Mars and signaled ground control 320 million kilometers away. After diagnostic tests, it will spend 90 days exploring and analyzing the area, climate, magnetic field and subsurface. The Tianwen-1 orbiter is changing its trajectory so Zhurong can transmit high-resolution photos. Read full article $→

"The mission is very ambitious. They plan to do, in one go, three steps NASA took several decades to achieve: getting into orbit, landing on the surface and then driving a rover around," said Roberto Orosei, from the Institute for Radioastronomy in Bologna, Italy. Other space milestones this past year include the final BeiDou GPS satellite and the first of 11 launches to build a Space StationRead full article →

The Tianhe core module cabin of China's space station project has completed in-orbit performance checks, including rendezvous and docking, life support systems for astronauts and robotic arms, as well as a series of space application equipment examinations. Read full article →

China granted 530,000 invention patents in 2020, 15.8 for every 10,000 citizens, and ranks 14th on the Global Innovation Index 2020. It is the only middle-income economy in the top 30.  Read full article →

New hybrid rice produces 6.5 tons/acre, exceeding expectations. Led by "father of hybrid rice" Yuan Longping, a team in charge of the fifth-phase Chaoyouqianhao strain aims for 45 tonnes/hectare yield over two seasons. Read full article →

Alibaba's PingTouGe Semiconductor new Xuantie 907, optimized for the open-source RISC-V architecture, can be used in microprocessors, intelligent voice, navigation and positioning, and storage. The Xuantie family has been licensed to several companies and the have shipped 2 billion units. Read full article →

The big six state-owned banks collectively spent $14.87 billion in 2020 on R&D, including artificial intelligence, blockchain technology, cloud computing, big data and Internet of Things. Read full article →


A new study of 10.2 million people found CoronaVac vaccine is 65.3% effective in preventing COVID-19, 87% in preventing hospitalization, 90.3% in preventing admission to ICU, and 86% in preventing Covid deaths. Read full article →

Russia and China are establishing vaccine facilities across the world and training local workers from emerging countries, betting that this will boost their presence on the ground for decades to come. The West has largely lost this battle. Read full article →

China vaccinates 14 million people a day amid flareups in Anhui and Liaoning. Hefei, Anhui’s capital city, administered 360,000 doses on Friday, the most in a single day for the hub of 10 million people. Read full article $→

Five Liaoning and Anhui officials were fired and dozens warned for dereliction of duty and malpractice.  A private clinic in Yingkou, linked to at least four confirmed COVID-19 patients, was ordered to suspend operations after doctors failed to report cases to higher health authorities. A doctor who received a fever patient later confirmed to be infected with COVID-19 was handed to judicial organs to face punishment for medical malpractice. Lu’an suspended four medical institutions. Read full article →

WHO approved Sinopharm vaccine as China is working to produce five billion doses annually and increase supply to developing countries. China shipped over 240 million doses (>50% of global total) and accelerated exports and technology transfers for international production. Demand for Chinese vaccines soared as India stopped exports due to its crisis. Read full article → 
The SARS-CoV-2 virus is like a cauliflower covered with spikes which enable the virus to enter. Shanghai doctors screened 10,000 candidates for neutralizing antibodies that paint a thick film and block the keyholes and chose P4A1-2A, a specific antibody for COVID-19 virus, which is now in clinical trials. Read full article →

China has started administering a single-dose adenovirus vector vaccine in five eastern cities, including, Shanghai as the country speeds up its immunization drive following a resurgence of coronavirus cases. Read full article →

Eight people hospitalized with pneumonia in Malaysia several years ago had evidence of infection with a coronavirus from dogs. A test designed to detect all coronaviruses — even unknown ones — picked up the genetic signature of a canine coronavirus in samples from the people. Read full article →

Fudan University provides autism screening in all local maternity hospitals and health centers. By 2020, it had screened 43,301 children 18 - 24 months old and found 336 with problems and diagnosed 96 with autism. 80% have now received intervention, and most go to ordinary kindergartens and primary schools. Read full article →


China will double the number of millionaires in the next five years and boost its middle class by 50%, according to HSBC. The number of high-net-worth individuals will increase to 5 million by 2025 from 2 million now and the middle class, 340 million now, will grow to over 500 million. Read full article $ →

A national missing children alert system has found 4,707 children five years after its roll-out. Tuan iYuan, Reunion, has sent out alerts relating to 4,801 missing children since it was set up in 2016 and 98 per cent of these were located, including 58 who had been murdered. Read full article $ →

A social media storm arose when the Better Cotton Initiative (BCI) stopped H&M, Nike, and Adidas sourcing cotton from Xinjiang. The hashtag “I support Xinjiang cotton” received 7.9 billion views on Weibo.  75%  of Chinese say “national products could fully or partially replace Western products.” Chinese interest in domestic brands has risen 528% in the past 10 years.  Read full article →

Uniqlo shirts were blocked at the US border because they violated a ban on Xinjiang cotton and Tencent removed Burberry outfit from Honour of Kings, China’s top game. Read full article →

The new status symbol, a Big Tech employee badge, started with social media remarks asking why ByteDance employees wear their badges outside business hours, comparing Big Tech employee badges to other status symbols like designer handbags and sneakers. Taobao vendors now sell fake badges, starting at $6. Read full article →

With over 15 million subscribers, rural lifestyle vlogger and cook Li Ziqi is China's biggest YouTube star. She's also immensely popular at home, where she's converted her earthy influence into a consumer food brand, according to VC investor Tracy Ji, "We are comparing Li Ziqi's brand to Coco Chanel — from a [key opinion leader] to a cultural symbol, and eventually a sustainable brand". Read full article →

The boundary of what's considered acceptable in Chinese advertising is shifting: automaker Chang’an Ford had to apologize for a raunchy ad that critics claimed objectified women. Read full article →

Since the cooling-off policy introduced in January for divorce registrations, registered divorces plunged to 296,000 cases, 70% below 4Q 2020. Also, a policy to stop couples who tried to get divorced to evade home purchase limits has taken effect in many areas, another factor in the lower number of divorces.  Read full article →

My China Roots offers free basic searches and family trees and lets subscribers save historical documents and get notified when others enter the same ancestor. It offers premium custom packages like travel, in-depth research and translation. Read full article $ →

Chinese in China are divided: The CCP backs Palestine and official narrative is anti-Israel. But regular folks are anti-Palestine because, after so many terrorist attacks, they are Islamophobic and prefer “non-barbaric” Israelis. Read full tweet  →

90% of Chinese overseas students still plan to study abroad while 92% of existing overseas students plan to return to their schools abroad. 79% stayed in China due to the pandemic and only 15% stayed abroad. Read full tweet  →

Trust in national government ha hit 98%. A York University survey of 19,816 people shows increased trust in national, provincial (95%) and township (91%) governments. Regarding pandemic response, confidence increased in 49% of respondents and decreased in 3%. Read full article $→


ABOVE: The US state of Indiana’s goods exports to China supported 18,200 jobs in 2018, but its services exports were more profitable.


Kishore Mahbubani: America's diplomatic influence has waned; China's has risen
Nanjing now requires delivery platforms like Meituan to sign formal labor contracts with riders. They also recommend contractors provide benefits like insurance and time off. Read full article →

Premier Li wants a market-oriented legalized international business environment: a convenient, standardized, nationally integrated digital government services. Li pushed for streamlining notarization services, “one network” for documents requiring authentication (like academic degrees and driver’s licenses) by year's end.  Read full article →

In 2010, policymakers decided to make China a global education brand and the largest foreign study destination in Asia by the end of the decade. This was achieved in 2017-2018. Today, China is one of the world's leading hosts of international students. Read full article →

A local official in Jiangxi was jailed for eight years for taking bribes worth $2.3 million to influence job promotions. Zhu Yingfu, 60, was expelled from the Communist Party and removed from public office for “serious violations of discipline and laws.” Read full article →

More taxpayers are eligible for full VAT refund in the advanced manufacturing industry. The new policy brings another five sectors under new tax policy support and will boost FDI into the advanced manufacturing industry. Read full article →

Beijing punished 2,500 firms and detained 95 people after an inspection campaign across eight provinces turned up instances of illegal quarrying and wetland encroachments, the environment ministry said. Read full article $→ 


Eid in Palestine: worshippers bow before the ruins of their mosque in Gaza 
Eid in Ürümqi, Xinjiang 


China’s donation of a new foreign ministry building to the Kenyan government is the latest in a decades-long campaign to provide African governments with buildings. Since 1966, Chinese companies have constructed or renovated at least 186 such buildings:  At least 40 of Africa’s 54 countries have a government building constructed by a Chinese company. Read full article →

Hong Kong closed its office in Taipei due to Taiwan’s ‘gross interference’ in the city.  “The Hong Kong government has accused Taiwan of giving succor to people who 'tried to shatter Hong Kong’s prosperity and stability' in street protests, saying Taipei’s actions had caused ‘irretrievable damage to Hong Kong-Taiwan relations’”. Read full article →

Imaginary China

The West has created an imaginary, evil China for its people to hate and fear – and it’s working.

Maitreya Bhakal

Western regimes are brainwashing their people with Sinophobia. They want them to both hate and fear China to manufacture consent for anti-China aggression. A fictional, Mordor-like China has been created to achieve this aim. If an alien landed on Earth today and read Western media reports on China, they would reach an unambiguous conclusion: China is a comprehensively and uniquely evil nation.

It [1] jails and kills civilians for no reason, [2] commits all sorts of atrocities on its people (who are apparently also filthy and spread diseases), [3] commits genocide on ethnic minorities, [4] obsessively controls people’s thoughts, [5] unleashes deadly plagues upon the world, [6] bullies other nations and traps them in debt, and [7] is a nation whose evil leaders are all fanatics, obsessed with power and bent on destroying the world. The aliens could be forgiven for assuming that all evil on this planet is because of China (and perhaps Russia and Iran thrown in for good measure)and the US, while not perfect, is nevertheless a force for good, a global guardian angel, the benevolent superpower keeping the world together.

It is the sole driver of world peace and international solidarity, the solitary bulwark against the evil Chinese communist hordes.

Manufacturing powerhouse vs manufacturing consent

Ever since Chinese economic reforms began and China started ‘rising’, Western media has unleashed a massive propaganda campaign against it. Every single Chinese action is scrutinized to death, every wrong deed or mistake criticized endlessly, and every achievement mostly ignored or downplayed. Two factors help explain this Sinophobic hate campaign.
  1. The standard policy to ‘manufacture consent’ and manufacture hatred – the purpose of Western journalism, especially against the only nation on Earth that can counter US hegemony.
  2. Plain-old racism – the core pillar of Western culture.

The middle kingdom

The US sees itself as the center of the universe, with other nations merely orbiting around it and paying homage. America treats many of them like its minions, or “allies” and “partners”, to use the popular – if inaccurate – terminology. Maintaining global and racial hegemony remains central to US foreign policy. Any successful development model that doesn’t obey Western norms cannot be tolerated.

Thus, today, when the US sees another successful power center emerging, its Pavlovian response is to violently push back. Since China is too successful, it has to be suppressed. A non-allied nation that is not a Western-style “democracy” cannot be allowed to develop – whether technologically or financially, and certainly not militarily. And since China is not even a white-majority nation, it needs to be crushed even more.

China is not like America

It [1] does not kill millions on false pretexts, it [2] does not bomb nations and their hospitals and schools, [3] it does not launch drone strikes against civilians, [4] it does not violate international law repeatedly while lecturing others to follow it, [5] it does not have an imperial empire for stealing and hoarding other nations’ wealth…… it does none of the things that has made the West rich and prosperous. China became rich largely without doing any of the above.

Dr. China and Mr. Hyde

Since China is not as evil as the West, an alternate, evil version of China has to be created – a mirror image in an alternate reality. The West can then project anything they want into this imaginary China. It can be accused of any evil in the world – based on equally imaginary evidence. This alternate China requires massive doses of propaganda and lies to construct – and the lapdog Western media is all too willing to oblige. After all, the US can’t openly say that it wants to destroy China in order to maintain US hegemony. Thus, they lie through their teeth and spread conspiracy theories. People can then be successfully brainwashed to hate and fear China.

In America, we refer to these manipulated people as "sheeple”. For example, when the US regime sanctions Chinese companies, it does so with the aim of preserving the dominance of Western companies that are unable to compete fairly. However, this cannot be said out loud, since it goes against “free market” principles the US regularly espouses.

Thus, a strawman needs to be manufactured: that Chinese companies are a “threat to national security” or have “backdoors” in them that allow the evil Chinese to snoop on you. Of course, this needs no evidence; the media will amplify US rhetoric without proof. 

Freedom of the press includes the freedom to lie

China’s Belt and Road Initiative is another glaring example. Western loans from the IMF or World Bank are brutal and predatory in nature, and frequently impose tough repayment terms and severe austerity measures on host nations, often causing downright bankruptcy. Recipient nations are required to privatize parts of their economy and surrender natural resources. Thus, in the topsy-turvy, Catch-22 world of Western propaganda, China is accused of predatory lending and ‘debt-trap diplomacy’.

Even human lives are not spared.

Pfizer, a wicked US pharma firm, allegedly demanded that South American nations surrender their sovereign assets as collateral in exchange for life-saving Covid-19 vaccines. Thus, as if on cue, China is accused of deploying “vaccine diplomacy” and taking advantage of smaller nations. A superpower race – with a different race. Once a justification is created that China is evil……and that every action China commits is an act of evil the US can paint itself as the good, benevolent superpower acting in the world’s best interests. This ‘Good v Evil’ binary is constantly reinforced through stereotypical Sinophobic tropes. 
The template is applied to every single story about China, from Hong Kong to Huawei.

Enter racism.

The way the West sees it, China is the proverbial “Other” – essentially a different civilization with different standards – almost a different type of human. As the bigoted Rudy Giuliani, “America’s mayor” and a former Trump adviser once said, human life “doesn’t mean the same thing” to the Chinese as it does to the West. Few Americans criticized his remarks. Many agreed with him, secretly pleased that he said out loud what they couldn’t. This is not an aberration. Racism is central to US society, and Sinophobia is deeply ingrained in US culture and policy-making. The former US president himself kept dog whistling “China virus” endlessly to anyone who would listen. His cronies were no better.

Kiron Skinner (who is ironically black; Sinophobia in America transcends racial boundaries), the then-director of policy planning at the State Department, said openly that this is “the first time that we will have a great-power competitor that is not Caucasian,” and that the previous Cold War with the Soviet Union was at least “a fight within the Western family.”

Unsurprisingly, the Western corporate media largely ignored her remarks. FBI Director Christopher Wray recently declared China a threat that requires a “whole-of-society” response. This was an almost exact replication of 19th-century propaganda portraying Chinese people as evil hordes coming over to infiltrate and destroy the pure, innocent Western societies. When COVID-19 struck, western media openly blamed China for the disease.

The more conservative outlets pounced at the ‘lab-leak theory’ and defended the use of the phrase “China virus”, while the more liberal ones focused on the tried-and-trusted ‘Chinese authoritarianism’ trope. The New York Times accused China’s “old habits” of “secrecy” and “controlling the narrative” of slowing the response. It pinned the blame on China and tried to deflect from western countries’ own criminal neglect in controlling their outbreaks. Yet it had the ‘democratic’ West adopted China’s ‘authoritarian’ methods, they wouldn’t have been on their knees today, struggling with recurrent waves. Blaming China was a coping mechanism; today, more people have died from COVID-19 just in Orange county in California, US than in the whole of China.

So much for democracy.

Combine all this with the regular Sinophobic reporting, and a steady picture begins to emerge: Barbaric China is an existential threat to our enlightened Western civilization. The Communist Party of China is just a modern-day Fu Manchu, that will stop at nothing to take our “freedoms.” After the Soviets and Muslims, it is now China’s turn to fill the role of the villain. Such imaginary rogues are useful to the US regime to distract the proles from domestic problems.

A world without war

And herein lies the real reason why they hate China. The West is prosperous today not because of hard work or perseverance, but because of centuries of imperialism, colonialism, and wealth hoarding. China, though, is on the path to becoming a superpower without committing such atrocities. This is what really riles them up; after all, jealousy is the root of most hatred. China’s rise shows that an alternative, multi-polar world is possible, a world not besieged by endless wars and genocidal sanctions, a world where poverty and hunger are distant memories – a world where people can live happily without being afraid that a superpower from across the planet may bomb them into oblivion because they have something it wants.

And the US cannot allow that.

Maitreya Bhakal is an Indian commentator who writes about China, India, the US, and global issues. Follow him on Twitter @MaitreyaBhakal

Who Needs China?

The US Needs China More Than China Needs the US

Stephen Roach

In the 1930s, protectionist tariffs and a global trade war exacerbated the Great Depression and destabilized the international order. Sadly, one of the most painful lessons of modern history is now at risk of being ignored.

Not one to be outdone by any adversary, Donald Trump has upped the ante in a rapidly escalating trade war with China, threatening an additional $100 billion of tariffs on top of the initial round of $50 billion. In doing so, the Trump administration is failing to appreciate a crucial reality: The United States needs China more than China needs the U.S.

Yes, China is still an export-led economy, and the American consumer is its largest customer. But China’s export share of its gross domestic product has fallen from 37 percent in 2007 to slightly less than 20 percent today, an important outgrowth of a decade-long rebalancing. By drawing increased support from domestic demand, China is better able to withstand the pressure of tariffs and other actions that are aimed at its exporters.

Not so with the United States. The U.S. depends heavily on China for providing the low-cost goods that enable income-constrained American consumers to make ends meet. The U.S. also depends on China to support its own exports; next to Mexico and Canada, China is America’s third largest and by far its most rapidly growing major export market.

And, of course, the U.S. depends on China to provide funding for its budget deficits. It is the largest foreign holder of U.S. Treasury securities – some $1.3 trillion in direct ownership and at least another $250 billion of quasi-government paper. A lack of Chinese buying could turn the next Treasury auction into a rout.

America depends on China because of a fundamental weakness in the structure of the U.S. economy -- a profound and worrisome lack of domestic saving. In the fourth quarter of 2017, the net domestic saving rate (depreciation-adjusted saving of households, businesses and the government sector, combined) was just 1.3% of national income.

Lacking in savings at home, and wanting to consume and grow, the U.S. must import surplus foreign saving from abroad – and run massive balance-of-payments and trade deficits to import this capital. In 2017, the United States had merchandise trade deficits with 102 nations!

President Donald Trump continued to single out China as the villain in the great American tragedy, when in fact he should take a careful look in the mirror.

  1. He continued to insist that the U.S.-China trade deficit is $500 billion, fully one-third larger than the actual figure of $375 billion published by the Commerce Department.
  2. Data from the OECD and the World Trade Organization suggests at least 40% of this bilateral imbalance reflects supply-chain effects of components and parts that are produced outside of China but assembled inside China. That means, based on the value added of what is  actually produced in China — the essence of the alleged China threat — that the 47% share of the U.S. deficit ascribed to China would be reduced to around 28 percent. Yes, this is still a big number. But it is far below the claims of President Trump and the official figures of the Commerce Department. While the international specialization of comparative advantage explains this portion, that argument doesn’t carry much weight in the political arena.  
  3. Trump’s budget deficits will make America’s trade problems worse. A low-saving U.S. economy can't square the circle without trade deficits. With tax cuts of $1.5 trillion over the next 10 years and another $300 billion in spending increases added in by a reckless Congress in order to avert a government shutdown late last year, the net domestic saving rate is headed toward zero – or even lower – with trade deficits likely to widen sharply in response.  

And that leads to the uncomfortable truth of China bashing: protectionism in the face of widening trade deficits. Courtesy of Trump tariffs, China’s deficit will now be distributed to the other 101 nations that make up America’s multilateral merchandise trade deficit. Relative to China, these are higher-cost producers, meaning the likely response to this retaliation will have the effect of taxing the very families Trump insists he is protecting.

In my 2014 book, I present estimates of the benefits of low-cost Chinese production, comparing its manufacturing compensation with that of the other top-ten sources of US imports. Chinese labor input was just $2.30 an hour while the average for foreign suppliers ranked two through 10 was about $26 per hour. Trump’s tariffs would, in effect, shift U.S. imports toward these higher-cost producers — with huge potential consequences on the purchasing power of beleaguered American consumers. Three things need to be addressed to avoid this nightmare:

  1. Communication: The exchange of views between the U.S. and China is far too episodic — annual gatherings of the Strategic and Economic Dialogue, the Joint Commission on Commerce and Trade, as well as periodic leader-to-leader summits. A permanent secretariat, staffed by high-level experts from both sides, would be far preferable in tackling the complexity of a challenging relationship.
  2. Market access: Both nations should put a high priority on breaking the 10-year logjam in negotiations of a bilateral investment treaty. For U.S. multinationals, access to China’s rapidly expanding domestic markets is a major growth opportunity. The same is the case for China’s “going out” global investment campaign.
  3. Intellectual property: The thorny issue of technology transfer — the essence of the battle over intellectual property rights — needs to be resolved. In doing so, an important distinction must be made between contractual sharing of operating systems by partners in commercially negotiated joint ventures and outright theft, coercion and cyberhacking. In today’s knowledge-based world, there can be no tolerance of these latter infractions.

In the 1930s, protectionist tariffs and a global trade war exacerbated the Great Depression and destabilized the international order. Sadly, one of the most painful lessons of modern history is now at risk of being ignored. Industry Week.

Stephen Roach is a faculty member at Yale University and former chairman of Morgan Stanley Asia, is the author of "Unbalanced: The Codependency of America and China."


US Encirclement of China: A Progress Report

Brian Berletic

Tensions between Washington and Beijing are not merely the recent results of former US President Donald Trump’s time in office – but rather just the latest chapter in US efforts to contain China that stretch back decades.

Indeed, US foreign policy has for decades admittedly aimed at encircling and containing China’s rise and maintaining primacy over the Indo-Pacific region.

The “Pentagon Papers” leaked in 1969 would admit in regards to the ongoing US war against Vietnam that:

…the February decision to bomb North Vietnam and the July approval of Phase I deployments make sense only if they are in support of a long-run United States policy to contain China.

The papers also admitted that China, “looms as a major power threatening to undercut [American] importance and effectiveness in the world and, more remotely but more menacingly, to organize all of Asia against [America].

The papers also made it clear that there were (and still are), “three fronts to a long-run effort to contain China: (a) the Japan-Korea front; (b) the India-Pakistan front; and (c) the Southeast Asia front.”

Since then, it is clear that from the continued US military presence in both Japan and South Korea, the now two decades-long US occupation of Afghanistan on both Pakistan’s and China’s borders, and the emergence of the so-called “Milk Tea Alliance” aimed at overthrowing Southeast Asian governments friendly with China and replacing them with US-backed client regimes – this policy to contain China endures up to today.

Assessing US activity along these three fronts reveals the progress and setbacks Washington faces – and various dangers to global peace and stability Washington’s continued belligerence pose.


The Japan-Korea Front in their article, “Here’s What It Costs to Keep US Troops in Japan and South Korea,” reports:

In all, more than 80,000 US troops are deployed to Japan and South Korea. In Japan alone, the US maintains more than 55,000 deployed troops — the largest forward-deployed US force anywhere in the world.

The article notes that according to the US Government Accountability Office (GAO), the US spent “$34 billion to maintain military presences in Japan and South Korea between 2016 and 2019.”

The article cites the GAO providing an explanation as to why this massive US military presence is maintained in East Asia:

“…US forces help strengthen alliances, promote a free and open Indo-Pacific region, provide quick response to emergencies and are essential for US national security.”

“Alliances” that are “strengthened” by the physical presence of what are essentially occupying US forces suggests the “alliance” is hardly voluntary and claims of promoting a “free and open Indo-Pacific region” is highly subjective – begging the question of to whom the Indo-Pacific is “free and open” to.

And as US power wanes both regionally in the Indo-Pacific as well as globally, Washington has placed increasing pressure on both Japan and South Korea to not only help shoulder this financial burden, but to also become more proactive within Washington’s containment strategy toward China.

Japan is one of three other nations (the US itself, Australia, and India) drafted into the US-led Quadrilateral Security Dialogue – also know as the “Quad.”

Rather than the US solely depending on its own military forces based within Japanese territory or supported by its Japan-based forces, Japan’s military along with India’s and Australia’s are also being recruited to take part in military exercises and operations in and around the South China Sea.

India’s inclusion in the Quad also fits well into the US 3-front strategy that made up Washington’s containment policy toward China as early as the 1960s.

The India-Pakistan Front 

In addition to recruiting India into the Quad alliance, the US helps encourage escalation through political support and media campaigning of India’s various territorial disputes with China.

The US also targets Pakistan’s close and ongoing relationship with China – including the support of armed insurgents in Pakistan’s Baluchistan province.

Recently, a bombing at a hotel in Quetta, Baluchistan appears to have targeted China’s ambassador to Pakistan, Ambassador Nong Rong.

The BBC in its article, “Pakistan hotel bomb: Deadly blast hits luxury venue in Quetta,” would claim:

Initial reports had suggested the target was China’s ambassador.

Ambassador Nong Rong is understood to be in Quetta but was not present at the hotel at the time of the attack on Wednesday.

The article also noted:

Balochistan province, near the Afghan border, is home to several armed groups, including separatists.

Separatists in the region want independence from the rest of Pakistan and accuse the government and China of exploiting Balochistan, one of Pakistan’s poorest provinces, for its gas and mineral wealth.

Absent from the BBC’s reporting is the extensive and open support the US government has provided these separatists over the years and how – clearly – this is more than just a local uprising against perceived injustice, but yet another example of armed conflict-by-proxy waged by Washington against China.

As far back as 2011 publications like The National Interest in articles like, “Free Baluchistan” would openly advocate expanding US support for separatism in Pakistan’s Baluchistan province.

The article was written by the late Selig  Harrison – who was a senior fellow at the US-based corporate-financier funded Center for International Policy – and would claim:

Pakistan has given China a base at Gwadar in the heart of Baluch territory. So an independent Baluchistan would serve US strategic interests in addition to the immediate goal of countering Islamist forces.

Of course, “Islamist forces” is a euphemism for US-Persian Gulf state sponsored militants used to both fight Western proxy wars as well as serve as a pretext for Western intervention. Citing “Islamist forces” in Baluchistan, Pakistan clearly serves as an example of the latter.

In addition to op-eds published by influential policy think tanks, US legislators like US Representative Dana Rohrabacher had proposed resolutions such as (emphasis added),

“US House of Representatives Concurrent Resolution 104 (112th): Expressing the sense of Congress that the people of Baluchistan, currently divided between Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan, have the right to self-determination and to their own sovereign country.”

There is also funding provided to adjacent, political groups supporting separatism in Baluchistan, Pakistan as listed by the US government’s own National Endowment for Democracy (NED) website under “Pakistan.” Organizations like the “Association for Integrated Development Balochistan” are funded by the US government and used to mobilize people politically, constituting clear interference by the US in Pakistan’s internal political affairs.

The Gwadar Port project is a key juncture within China’s growing global network of infrastructure projects as part of its One Belt, One Road initiative. The US clearly opposes China’s rise and has articulated robust strategies to counter it; everything up to and including open war as seen in the Pentagon Papers regarding the Vietnam War.

The recent bombing in Baluchistan, Pakistan demonstrates that this strategy continues in regards to utilizing local militants to target Chinese-Pakistani cooperation and is one part of the much wider, region-wide strategy of encircling and containing China.

The Southeast Asia Front

Of course the US war against Vietnam was part of a wider effort to reassert Western primacy over Southeast Asia and deny the region from fueling China’s inevitable rise.

The US having lost the war and almost completely retreating from the Southeast Asia region saw Southeast Asia itself repair relations amongst themselves and with China.

Today, the nations of Southeast Asia count China as their largest trade partner, investor, a key partner in infrastructure development, a key supplier for the region’s armed forces, as well as providing the majority of tourism arrivals throughout the region. For countries like Thailand, more tourists arrive from China than from all Western nations combined.

Because existing governments in Southeast Asia have nothing to benefit from by participating in American belligerence toward China, the US has found it necessary to cultivate and attempt to install into power various client regimes. This has been an ongoing process since the Vietnam War.

The US has targeted each nation individually for years. In 2009 and 2010, US-backed opposition leader-in-exile Thaksin Shinawatra deployed his “red shirt” protesters in back-to-back riots – the latter of which included some 300 armed militants and culminated in city-wide arson across Bangkok and the death of over 90 police, soldiers, protesters, and bystanders.

In 2018, US-backed opposition groups took power in Malaysia after the US poured millions of dollars for over a decade in building up the opposition.

Daniel Twining of the US National Endowment for Democracy subsidiary – the International Republican Institute – admitted during a talk (starting at 56 minutes) by the Center for Strategic and International Studies that same year that:

…for 15 years working with NED resources, we worked to strengthen Malaysian opposition parties and guess what happened two months ago after 61 years? They won.

He would elaborate on how the NED’s network played a direct role in placing US-backed opposition figures into power within the Malaysian government, stating:

I visited and I was sitting there with many of the leaders the new leaders of this government, many of whom were just our partners we had been working with for 15 years and one of the most senior of them who’s now one of the people running the government said to me, ‘gosh IRI you never gave up on us even when we were ready to give up on ourselves.’

Far from “promoting freedom” in Malaysia – Twining would make clear the ultimate objective of interfering in Malaysia’s internal political affairs was to serve US interests not only in regards to Malaysia, but in regards to the entire region and specifically toward encircling and containing China.


Twining would boast:

…guess what one of the first steps the new government took? It froze Chinese infrastructure investments.

And that:

[Malaysia] is not a hugely pro-American country. It’s probably never going to be an actual US ally, but this is going to redound to our benefit, and and that’s an example of the long game.

It is a pattern that has repeated itself in Myanmar over the decades with NED money building a parallel political system within the nation and eventually leading to Aung San Suu Kyi and her US-backed National League for Democracy (NLD) party taking power in 2016.

For Myanmar, so deep and extensive is US backing for opposition groups there that elections virtually guarantee US-backed candidates win every single time. The US National Endowment for Democracy’s own website alone lists over 80 programs and organizations receiving US government money for everything from election polling and building up political parties, to funding media networks and “environmental” groups used to block Chinese-initiated infrastructure projects.

The move by Myanmar’s military in February this year, ousting Aung Sang Suu Kyi and the NLD was meant to correct this.

However, in addition to backing political groups protesting in the streets, the US has – for many decades – backed and armed ethnic rebels across the country. These rebels have now linked up with the US-backed NLD and are repeating US-backed regime change tactics used against the Arab World in 2011 in nations like Libya, Yemen, and Syria – including explicit calls for “international intervention.”

A US-Engineered “Asia Spring”  

Just as the US did during the 2011 “Arab Spring” – the US State Department, in a bid to create synergies across various regime change campaigns in Asia, has introduced the “Milk Tea Alliance” to transform individual US-backed regime change efforts in Asia into a region-wide crisis.

The BBC itself admits in articles like, “Milk Tea Alliance: Twitter creates emoji for pro-democracy activists,” that:

The alliance has brought together anti-Beijing protesters in Hong Kong and Taiwan with pro-democracy campaigners in Thailand and Myanmar.

Omitted from the BBC’s coverage of the “Milk Tea Alliance” (intentionally) is the actual common denominators that unite it – US funding through fronts like the National Endowment for Democracy and a unifying hatred of China based exclusively on talking points pushed by the US State Department itself.

Circling back to the Pentagon Papers and recalling the coordinated, regional campaign the US sought to encircle China with – we can then look at more recent US government policy papers like the “Indo-Pacific Framework” published in the White House archives from the Trump administration.

The policy paper’s first bullet point asks:

How to maintain US strategic primacy in the Indo-Pacific region and promote a liberal economic order while preventing China from establishing new, illiberal spheres of influence, and cultivating areas of cooperation to promote regional peace and prosperity?

The paper also discusses information campaigns designed to “educate” the world about “China’s coercive behaviour and influence operations around the globe.” These campaigns have materialized in a propaganda war fabricating accusations of “Chinese genocide” in Xinjiang, China, claims that Chinese telecom company Huawei is a global security threat, and that China – not the US – is the single largest threat to global peace and stability today.

In reality US policy aimed at encircling China is predicated upon Washington’s desire to continue its own decades-long impunity upon the global stage and the continuation of all the wars, humanitarian crises, and abuses that have stemmed from it.

Understanding the full scope of Washington’s “competition” with China helps unlock the confusion surrounding unfolding individual crises like the trade war, the ongoing violence and turmoil in Myanmar, bombings in southwest Pakistan, students mobs in Thailand, riots in Hong Kong, and attempts by the US to transform the South China Sea into an international conflict.

Understanding that these events are all connected – then assessing the success or failure of US efforts gives us a clearer picture of the overall success Washington in encircling China.  It also gives governments and regional blocs a clearer picture of how to manage policy in protecting against US subversion that threatens national, regional, and global peace and stability.

Brian Berletic is a Bangkok-based geopolitical researcher and writer, especially for the online magazine New Eastern Outlook”.  


From the Outside Looking In:
A Response to John Garnaut’s Primer on Ideology

Christian Sorace 

[John Garnaut is an Australian journalist formerly resident in China]

For China’s leader, Xi Jinping, the Chinese Communist Party’s (CCP) future depends, to a large degree, on the revitalisation of ideology. In his works, Xi repeatedly stresses the importance of ideological ‘belief’ (信仰) as the key ingredient of the Party organisation’s cohesion and discipline. Xi’s words are not empty declarations; under his leadership, the CCP has tightened control over the public sphere, and defended itself against the ‘infiltration’ of Western ideology.

The Party’s renewed emphasis on ideology has not gone unnoticed by China watchers. Over the past years there has been an endless stream of opinion pieces and pontifications about the latest alleged ‘ideological turn’, with the broad consensus being that China has abandoned the non-ideological pragmatism that made it more rational and prosperous in the reform period to return to the irrational communist ideology of the Mao era. These accounts, however, rest on an unexamined notion of ideology as a form of brainwashing that is fundamentally different from the Chinese conception of ideology, a misunderstanding that ultimately serves to cloud our vision of how power works, both in China and more generally.

In ordinary English usage, the word ideology has a pathological quality to it; it is what we diagnose in others but do not admit to having ourselves. To accuse someone of being ideological implies that they are imposing their own beliefs on the world. Moreover, such beliefs are resistant to reason, derided as ‘false consciousness’. It would seem self-evident that this is the not the definition of ideology that Xi has in mind.

In Chinese, 'ideology' (意识形态) means consciousness (意识) of patterns and forms (形态). One learns how to act like a human (做人) by following rituals and norms of social behaviour. In this conception, ideology is not imposed on the world from the outside, but consists in the practices and patterns of political, social, and cultural life. These do not just occur ‘naturally’ or ‘spontaneously’ but originate from a locus of authority. In China, intellectual historian Timothy Cheek suggests, ‘the [Communist] party is civil society and its propaganda system is the public sphere’ (Cheek 1998, 237). The CCP claims the authority to shape the public sphere, which consists not only of words, but also of attitudes and emotions.

In this editorial, I take a different approach and propose that ideology is the inescapable air we breath as political and social beings. We are never above, beyond, or outside ideology. For that reason, we should not project as ideology that which takes place elsewhere, something that happens to other, ‘passive’ minds. Understanding ideology requires self-reflexivity, and attunement to historical and political contexts. When one believes that one is free of ideology, all other attempts to politically order the world appear the same, and dissolve into ‘the night in which all cows are black’. They become the fever dreams of dictators; silhouettes of power; incursions into liberal timelessness.

In the age of Xi, China pundits have been asked to become overnight experts on ideology. But which definition of ideology do they reach for?

Ahistorical Blurs

In August 2017, former journalist and policy advisor on China John Garnaut gave a seminar to the Australian government called ‘Engineers of the Soul: What Australia Needs to Know About Ideology in Xi Jinping’s China.’ The speech, circulated in January 2019 in the Sinocism newsletter, is a warning to the Australian government (and the rest of us) to sober up about Xi and the direction he is taking China. And that direction is the frightening world of ‘ideology’.

For Garnaut, following in the footsteps of ‘Lenin, Stalin, and Mao’, Xi Jinping is driven by the ‘totalitarian aspiration of engineering the human soul’. In this one sentence, Garnaut positions Xi in an unbroken lineage of communist dictators. History falls out of the picture. Ideological battles that raged and divided the communist world during the twentieth-century are collapsed into a monolithic, totalitarian communist ideology: ‘Elite politics from Mao’s death to the Tiananmen massacres was a genuine contest of ideas. But ideology won that context.’ The implication of this passage is that China lost the opportunity to become a liberal democracy and free itself from the grip of ideology. Perhaps Garnaut genuinely believes that he is speaking from a place of ‘ideas’ free of ‘ideology’, as he recites Cold War scripts as if they were second nature.

The disavowal of ideological difference results in not just impoverished politics, but also bad history. Take the following example of how Garnaut treats the problem of language in communist revolutions and states during the twentieth century: ‘For Lenin, Stalin, Mao and Xi, words are not vehicles of reason and persuasion. They are bullets.’ Before reading on, ask yourself: are Lenin, Stalin, Mao, and Xi genuinely the same authoritarian personality like a set of Russian nesting dolls? Are the historical moments they exist(ed) in and political visions they pursue(d) entirely the same? Were Lenin’s polemics aimed at mobilising workers to join in revolution the same language as confessions during Stalin’s show trials? Was Mao’s folksy vernacular of class struggle the same as Xi Jinping’s turgid civilisational discourse of harmony and prosperity? Was the Mao-era practice of writing big character posters (大字报) replicated anywhere else in the communist world (even in China, Deng Xiaoping banned them in the 1980s)? For Garnaut, these differences are erased under the ahistorical notion of ‘total ideological control’.

In addition to folding all history into a pancake-like concept of ideology, Garnaut’s speech is also littered with historical errors. For example, the claim that ‘Mao’s men first coined the term “brainwashing” . . . in 1942’ overlooks the fact that the term xinao (洗脑)—literally, washing the brain—actually originated in the late Qing period. For example, according to an unpublished manuscript by Ryan Mitchell, in the work of Chinese scholar and translator Yan Fu (1854–1921), the term was positively associated with Enlightenment, and remained that way until it was taken up by Western reporters during the Cold War. The purpose of Garnaut’s speech, however, is not to confront the latent potentials, revolutionary ruptures, and continuities in ways of being and speaking, but to paint Chinese history with a brush of oriental despotism, and sooth an anxious Cold War mentality that condemns any alternative to capitalist hegemony as unnatural ‘ideology’. Garnaut shows his hand in the astonishing claim that Xi is ‘pushing communist ideology at a time when the idea of “communism” is as unattractive as it has been at any time in the past 100 years.’ To argue on the centenary of the October Revolution that the idea of communism has never been attractive is wilful ignorance and self-delusion. But beyond that, the idea that Xi is pushing communist ideology may come as a surprise to many Chinese people, especially the group of Maoist students who were recently detained and forced to give confessions for taking Mao and Marx at their word, and daring to see class struggle and inequality in the world around them. Xi is about as far from Mao on the ideological spectrum that he might as well be standing on the North Pole.

Garnaut insists, however, that Xi and Mao are the same because for him ideology is simply another word for power/dictatorship/control: ‘For Xi, as with Stalin and Mao, there is no endpoint in the perpetual quest for unity and regime preservation.’ By Mao, is Garnaut referring to the same person who launched the Cultural Revolution, which nearly toppled China’s political system? The one who called on the masses to ‘bombard the headquarters’ (炮打司令部) and sanctified the ‘right to rebel’ (造反有理)? The only possible way to describe Maoist politics as a part of a ‘perpetual quest for unity and regime preservation’ is by disavowing the complex political significance of the Cultural Revolution.

Garnaut is correct at least that under Xi, China is vigorously pursuing ‘ideological control’ within and beyond its borders, and is becoming intolerant of critical voices that present China’s stories in a negative light. But is increased control evidence that China is returning to the Mao era? Is there a role for mass politics in Xi Jinping’s China? Is there a role for class struggle in Xi’s China? If the answers to the above questions are ‘NO’, then Xi is not returning China to the Mao era.

Whose Ideology?

Garnaut’s lecture on ideology avoids actually thinking about ideology. This matters because Garnaut’s opinion on China is well respected and listened to in the policy community; he has the ear of the Australian government. Fashionable clichés, such as ‘Xi has reinvigorated ideology to an extent we have not seen since the Cultural Revolution’, lull people into believing that China is aberrantly ideological. It is an old fable about capitalism’s origins in human nature, as if Australians or Americans, or any of us, are not the product of ideological conditioning, habit formation, and coercion. In a time when policy analysts are debating a low-intensity revival of the Cold War, Garnaut’s speech is an attempt to rekindle the fire. People like Garnaut and his target-audience of hawkish policymakers need the spectre of a ‘brainwashed’ China to defend their own ideological platform. Perhaps more perniciously is the fact that such Cold War rhetoric directly feeds into the CCP’s persecution complex. China’s leaders are able to deflect meaningful and well-intentioned criticisms by labelling them as part of a Western conspiracy to humiliate their country. Garnaut calls this out in his essay but does not see how he himself is a part of it.

My purpose in writing this editorial is not to attack or defend Xi Jinping’s China, but to reclaim the concept of ideology as a permanently open political question. The issue here is not to deny that there are serious problems but to reflect on the framework in which these problems are discussed. What kind of world do we want to live in? For me, the problem with China is not that it poses an ideological threat to global capitalism but that it is has abandoned its revolutionary potential and failed to open up an alternative future to capitalism. In the words of theorist Dai Jinhua (2018, 20): ‘If a Chinese model exists, then it seems to be inevitably a capitalist model and not an alternative to capitalism.’ Dai adds that without such an alternative, the future of humanity is at stake: ‘For China, this topic is especially urgent, because China must be a China of the future, or there will be no future’ (2018, 22). Within capitalist ideology, that question is foreclosed; all one can do is ‘watch the fires burning across the river’ (隔岸观火) and hope that they do not spread. Made in China Journal


Cheek, Timothy. 1998. “From Market to Democracy in China: Gaps in the Civil Society Model.” In Market Economics and Political Change: Comparing China and Mexico, edited by Juan Lindau and Timothy Cheek, 219–52. New York, NY: Rowan and Littlefield.Dai, Jinhua (edited by Lisa Rofel). 2018. After the Post-Cold War: The Future of Chinese History. Durham: Duke University Press.Garnaut, John. 2019. “Engineers of the Soul: Ideology in Xi Jinping’s China.” Sinocism 17 January., Ryan. “From Xinao to ‘Brainwashing’: Ideological Conflict and the Changing Discourse of Political Modernity in China.” Unpublished manuscript.

Christian Sorace is an Assistant Professor of Political Science at Colorado College. His research focuses on the ideology, discourse, and political concepts of the Chinese Communist Party and how they shape policies, strategies, and governance habits. 

Asian Alternatives

Tesla’s Shanghai Issues Illustrate Increasingly China Competitive, Asian Alternatives

Chris Devonshire-Ellis 


Reuters have reported that Tesla has postponed plans to expand its new Shanghai facilities due to rising US-China tensions. If the reason given is true – and not a negotiating tactic – it indicates that the US-China decoupling rhetoric, which to date has come from the US political class, may be spreading into the corporate sector.

This would be the first sign that a major US company and global business brand may be basing its business decisions on the repercussions of geopolitical tensions. If so, it could become a game changer in the process of decoupling, because if Tesla moves in that direction, then other US-owned and other foreign companies will begin to do the same.

At this juncture, it is only a speculative report, and the information purposely leaked to gauge reactions. However, the potential loss of a new-generation and high-profile export manufacturer from China – Tesla had planned to use the Shanghai plant as a global export hub – will be a considerable blow.

Three scenarios are likely – either that Tesla truly feels the US-China relationship has or will shortly deteriorate to such an extent that it would damage their global sales potential, or they are using the political differences to extract land use concessions from Shanghai, or are eying alternative, perhaps less expensive manufacturing locations elsewhere.

That second scenario fits in with previous statements made by the company, with Elon Musk, Tesla’s CEO stating last year that the company had plans to “expand factories in Asia outside China.”

Speculation has been rife since then that locations for this could be in either Japan or South Korea, where the sourcing of certain component parts, such as semi-conductors, could be better guaranteed should the US pass the ‘Strategic Competition Act’, which would seriously restrict Chinese access to such components.

However, there are other Asian markets that could also prove attractive and less expensive than Japan or South Korea. India has a large, inexpensive labor pool and is unlikely at this stage to fall foul of US trade restrictions; Tesla established a manufacturing facility in Bangalore earlier this year and may well be redesigning its corporate budgets in favor of Indian competitiveness over China.

Thailand is another potential choice; the ASEAN country has an extensive auto supply chain infrastructure and is a regional hub. Both India and Thailand – along with other ASEAN nations such as Indonesia – offer tax incentives for foreign investors in EV production.

Tesla’s decision at this stage to postpone further development in Shanghai does not mean it is pulling out. China remains a massive consumer market and Tesla’s primary aim in Shanghai will be to target that. Regional competitiveness – and yes, the possibility of certain new tech supply chain difficulties in China – merely make manufacturing options and analyzing these an increasingly important factor in contemporary global business and investment planning.

The following articles refer and specifically deal with US investor interests:

Foreign Policy

The Glorious course and Ambitious Prospects for the Foreign Affairs Work
of the Communist Party of China
in the 100 years Since its Founding


Yang Jiechi

Translated by 高大伟 David Cowhig

[Translator's note: Below I have added notes in brackets to Yang Jiechi’s authoritative article. I also corrected a few typos in the otherwise quite good DeepL machine translation. I broke up a few paragraphs that would otherwise have been too long in English, and added some URLs.  Source: Seeking Truth 2021/10 [Seeking Truth Qiushi is the leading ideological journal of the Chinese Communist Party.]

[Yang Jiechi, former PRC Ambassador to the USA, currently a Party Poliburo member and PRC State Councilor and China’s lead foreign affairs official. Yang concludes his article concludes with general marching orders for people working in Party and government diplomatic and foreign affairs work]. 

This year marks the centenary of the founding of the Communist Party of China. The century-old party is in its prime. China is on the verge of building a moderately prosperous society and achieving the first “Two Centenaries” goal, and is also on the verge of starting a new journey of building a modern socialist country and marching towards the second Two Centenaries goal.

Standing at the historic intersection of the Two Centenaries goals, a comprehensive and systematic review of our Party’s glorious history of unity and leadership of the Chinese people is essential to inspire the entire Party and the people of all nationalities to unite more closely around the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as the core, [Note: “uniting around the Communist Party Central Committee with [top leader] at its core” is a standard Party formulation. End note] to take a new journey of building a socialist modern country, and to achieve the the Chinese dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation is of great significance. [Note: the China Dream, the great rejuvenation of the Chinese people and the Chinese renaissance are major recurring themes in Party Secretary Xi Jinping’s speeches. End note.]

  The Party’s foreign affairs work is an important part of the Party’s century-long history of struggle, an important part of the overall work of the Party and the State, and has witnessed the great leap of the Chinese nation from standing up, getting rich to getting strong. At present, the situation facing foreign affairs work is more complex, the task is more onerous, and the mission is more glorious. We need to draw strength from history to move forward, take into account the historical orientation of our country and the general trend of world development, and strive to promote a new era of great power diplomacy with Chinese characteristics.

I. The development of foreign affairs work since the founding of the Chinese Communist Party a century ago

  Over the past hundred years, generations of Chinese Communists have relied closely on the people, united and led the Chinese people in their successive struggles, ushering in a bright future of achieving the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. In this historical process, the Party’s foreign affairs work has made important contributions to the development and growth of the Party, the prosperity of the country and the rejuvenation of the nation by firmly defending national interests and national dignity in various historical periods. The century-long history of the Party’s foreign affairs work can be divided into four periods. [Note: Supporting the Communist Party’s united front work both inside and outside of China is a responsibility of all Communist Party members. End note]

A. 1921-1949, the period of the New Democratic Revolution. The Party’s foreign affairs work started from scratch and grew from small to large, laying a solid foundation for the realization of the goals of the New Democratic Revolution, the development and construction of new China, and the diplomatic and foreign affairs work.

  First, it explored the formation of the Party’s foreign policy and foreign relations model, and put forward the Party’s ideological theory of foreign work at the founding stage. The Party’s foreign relations were distinctly party and internationalist in nature, and the main targets were the Soviet Union and the Communist International. After Japan launched the war of aggression against China, the Party established the strategic policy of establishing the anti-Japanese national united front and the international united front. After the victory of the War of Resistance against Japan and during the War of Liberation, according to the changing situation at home and abroad, Comrade Mao Zedong successively put forward the famous assertions “Two Camps“, “all reactionaries are paper tigers” along with the three main lines of the PRC’s foreign policy: “starting a new stove”. [Note: see the PRC Ministry of Foreign Affairs website article Google-translated as “Formulation of foreign policy on the eve of the founding of New China” End note]  “clean house before inviting guests” and “leaning to one side“.

  In November 1931, the Provisional Central Government of the Chinese Soviet Republic was established in Ruijin and set up “nine ministries and one bureau”, of which the Ministry of People’s Commissar for Foreign Affairs was one. On May 1, 1947, the Foreign Affairs Group of the CPC Central Committee was formally established in Sanjiao Town, Linxian County, Shanxi.

  Thirdly, it has amassed valuable experience in handling foreign relations. The founding of the CPC was actively assisted by the international community, and with the Zunyi Conference in January 1935, which established the leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Comrade Mao Zedong as the main representative of the correct Marxist line, the CPC strengthened the principle of independence in handling foreign relations. During the war, the Party took a more flexible approach to observing and analyzing the external world and took the initiative to work with the United States, Britain and other Western countries.

  Fourth, it trained the cadres for the new China to carry out diplomatic and foreign affairs work. During the 13 years in Yan’an, the Party Central Committee built a foreign affairs cadre that listened to the Party’s command and was loyal to the people. After the victory of the War of Resistance Against Japan, Comrade Zhou Enlai accompanied Comrade Mao Zedong to Chongqing to negotiate with the Kuomintang, and then led our Party delegation to negotiate with the Kuomintang authorities for more than a year, many of whom became the backbone of the diplomatic and foreign affairs work after the founding of New China. Many cadres who had been tested by the revolutionary struggle joined the diplomatic and foreign affairs work in accordance with the decision of the Party Central Committee.

B. 1949-1978 was the period of socialist revolution and construction. The main task of the Party’s foreign affairs work was to break through the isolation, containment, encirclement and threat of Western hostile forces against the new China, safeguard national independence, national sovereignty and security, and strive for a peaceful international environment conducive to socialist construction.

  First, it focused on opposing hegemonism and the threat of war, expanding friendship and cooperation with the outside world, and putting forward such important theories as the “Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence“, the “Middle Ground” and the “Three Worlds“. In the 1950s, China agreed with India and Burma to adopt the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence as the basic principles guiding mutual relations, and in the late 1950s and early 1960s and 1970s, Chairman Mao Zedong put forward the strategic ideas of “Two Intermediate Zones” and “Three Worlds”. 

  Secondly, the Party made efforts to establish and develop friendly and cooperative relations with other countries in the world, ushering in two climaxes in the establishment of diplomatic relations: on October 3, 1949, the Soviet Union became the first country to establish diplomatic relations with New China, setting off the first major achievement of Chinese diplomacy, and in the early 1970s, the Party seized the opportunity of the changing international situation to usher in the second major achievement of Chinese diplomacy. By 1976, China had established diplomatic relations with 113 countries, the majority of countries in the world at that time.

  Third, we actively made plans to change the relations between major countries and achieved a major breakthrough. In February 1972, President Nixon visited China, and on February 28, China and the United States issued the Sino-US Joint Communique in Shanghai which marked the beginning of the normalization of relations between the two countries, a major event in the history of Sino-US relations. The “Japan-China Joint Communique” normalized diplomatic relations between China and Japan. China also established formal relations with the European Community.

  Fourthly, China has firmly safeguarded its national sovereignty and security, and has strongly enhanced its international status. After an arduous struggle, China won a great victory in the war against the United States and Korea [Note: for China’s view of the War to Oppose America and Support Korea see GT’s translation of the Baidu encyclopedia article. End note] , which greatly enhanced the national self-confidence and pride of the Chinese people, vigorously safeguarded the sovereignty and security of the new China and the achievements of the revolution, and unprecedentedly raised China’s international status. Our country firmly safeguards its national sovereignty and territorial integrity. We have also made breakthrough achievements in national defense, science and technology, such as the “two bombs and one satellite“.

  Fifth, we have actively participated in international affairs and safeguarded the noble cause of world peace and development. Premier Zhou Enlai led a delegation to the Bandung Conference held in Indonesia in April 1955, which opened the door to China’s extensive contacts with Asian and African countries, and on October 25, 1971, the 26th session of the UN General Assembly adopted Resolution 2758 by an overwhelming majority, restoring all legitimate rights of the People’s Republic of China to the UN. As a founding member of the United Nations and a permanent member of the Security Council, China has made important contributions to the realization of the purposes and principles of the United Nations Charter, the maintenance of world peace and the promotion of common development, the strengthening of friendship and cooperation among nations, and the advancement of the cause of human progress.

C. 1978-2012, the new period of reform, opening up and socialist modernization. The main task of the Party’s foreign affairs work was to cooperate with national economic construction, create a good cooperation environment, peripheral environment, security environment and public opinion environment for reform and opening up, and build a new pattern of foreign relations.

  Firstly, the Party has scientifically judged the theme of the times and the world trend, and put forward the foreign policy and guiding ideology. After the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the CPC, Comrade Deng Xiaoping put forward the judgment that peace and development are the two major issues in the contemporary world and that a world war cannot be fought, shifting the focus of the Party’s work to economic construction. At the critical moment of the dramatic changes in the Soviet Union, Comrade Deng Xiaoping emphasized the need to adhere to the Four Cardinal Principles to ensure the correct direction of China’s development. After the Fourth Plenary Session of the 13th Party Central Committee, we broke the sanctions imposed by Western countries. [Note: Sanctions imposed by the G7 countries after the killings around Tiananmen Square in June 1989. End note] Comrade Jiang Zemin proposed to promote the establishment of a just and reasonable new international political and economic order and advocated respect for the diversity of world civilizations. Comrade Hu Jintao proposed to work hand in hand with all peoples to promote the building of a harmonious world of lasting peace and common prosperity. China’s status as an emerging power and its influence have been recognized worldwide.

  In January 1979, China and the United States established diplomatic relations, and in August 1978, China and Japan signed the Sino-Japanese Treaty of Peace and Friendship, and in May 1989, China and the Soviet Union normalized their relations. In 1991, China started the dialogue process with ASEAN. At the turn of the century, China has promoted the establishment of bilateral relations with major powers for the 21st century, actively developed good neighborly relations with neighboring countries, and strengthened friendly and cooperative relations with other developing countries.

  Thirdly, we have expanded and deepened the pattern of opening up to the outside world and made important development achievements. China joined the World Trade Organization in 2001, properly responded to the Asian financial crisis in 1997 and the international financial crisis in 2008, and its economic volume jumped from the 11th place in the world in 1978 to the 2nd place in 2010.

  Fourth, multilateral diplomacy has become increasingly active, and we have been deeply involved in or created international mechanisms; in June 2001, the first Shanghai Cooperation Organization summit was held in Shanghai; in October 2001, the ninth informal meeting of APEC leaders was successfully held in Shanghai; in August 2008, China successfully hosted the 29th Summer Olympic Games in Beijing; in May 2010, China successfully hosted the 41st World Expo in Shanghai. 41st World Expo in Shanghai in May 2010.

D. Since the 18th Party Congress in 2012, socialism with Chinese characteristics has entered a new era. Under the strong leadership of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as the core, and under the guidance of Xi Jinping’s socialist thought of a new era with Chinese characteristics, the Party and the State have made historic achievements and undergone historic changes in their undertakings. At this new historical starting point, General Secretary Xi Jinping, with the strategic vision and mission of a great power leader, focuses on the overall strategic situation of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation and the unprecedented changes in the world over the past century, and leads us to continuously open up a new situation of great power diplomacy with Chinese characteristics in the new era, and the Party’s diplomatic and foreign affairs work has made significant achievements that have attracted worldwide attention. China’s international status and influence have risen to unprecedented heights, and it has increasingly moved closer to the center of the world stage, continually making new and greater contributions to the development and progress of mankind.

  First, it has formed and established the guiding position of Xi Jinping’s diplomatic thought. Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy is an important part of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, a major theoretical crystallization of the combination of the basic principles of Marxism and the practice of great power diplomacy with Chinese characteristics, a centralized embodiment of the Party Central Committee’s thinking on governance in the field of diplomacy with Comrade Xi Jinping at the core, and a fundamental guideline and action guide for China’s foreign affairs work in the new era. With the “Ten Insistences” at its core, Xi Jinping’s diplomatic thinking has clearly defined the historical mission, general objectives and a series of principles that must be adhered to in China’s foreign affairs in the new era, which profoundly reveals the essential requirements, inner laws and directions of great power diplomacy with Chinese characteristics in the new era. 

General Secretary Xi Jinping has firmly grasped the major trends of China’s and the world’s development, made a series of major assertions that the world is undergoing a major change unprecedented in a century and that China’s development is still at an important strategic opportunity period, and put forward a series of proposals that are rich in Chinese characteristics, reflect the spirit of the times, and lead the progress of human development, such as promoting the building of a community of human destiny, building a new type of international relations, and jointly building the “Belt and Road“. 

  Secondly, the government has given full play to the strategic leadership role of the head of state in diplomacy, and actively carried out home diplomacy and major foreign activities. General Secretary Xi Jinping has successfully attended the high-level meetings to commemorate the 70th and 75th anniversaries of the United Nations, the G20 Leaders’ Summit, the BRICS Leaders’ Meeting, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) Heads of State Summit, the APEC Leaders’ Informal Meeting, the World Economic Forum Davos Annual Meeting and other important multilateral meetings, profoundly expounding China’s propositions on major issues concerning the peaceful development of the world and the future destiny of mankind, upholding and practicing multilateralism, and vigorously leading the way for the development of the world. 

The Chinese government has also been upholding and practicing multilateralism and leading the way in the world’s development. General Secretary Xi Jinping has successfully presided over the G20 Hangzhou Summit, the APEC Informal Leaders’ Meeting in Beijing, the “Belt and Road” International Cooperation Summit, the FOCAC Beijing Summit, the ASEAN Summit in Shanghai, the China International Import Expo, the Asian Civilization Dialogue Conference, the High-level Dialogue between the Communist Party of China and the World Political Parties, the China-Central and Eastern Europe Dialogue, and the China-China Summit. China has played a leading role in a series of major diplomatic events, including the China-Central and Eastern European Leaders Summit, and has achieved a series of major breakthroughs, significantly enhancing China’s global influence and international agenda-shaping power. 

During the coronavirus pandemic, General Secretary Xi Jinping attended the opening ceremony of the Special Summit of G20 Leaders to Address New Coronavirus Pneumonia and the 73rd World Health Assembly Video Conference, hosted the Special Summit on China-Africa Solidarity against the Epidemic and delivered an important speech, announcing major anti-epidemic cooperation initiatives and calling on the international community to join hands to build a human health and wellness community. At the Climate Summit, General Secretary Xi Jinping put forward the “Six Insistences” [liuge jianchi 六个坚] to address the challenges of climate change and strengthen global environmental governance, advocating the joint building of a community of life between human beings and nature. Since the outbreak of the epidemic, General Secretary Xi Jinping has met with more than 100 foreign leaders and heads of international organizations through offline and online meetings, telephone calls and letters, which have pointed the way forward and injected strong impetus for the development of relations between China and other countries in the world and promoted international solidarity in the fight against the pandemic.

  Third, advocate the promotion of the “One Belt, One Road” major initiative, open up a new situation of external opening and international cooperation. General Secretary Xi Jinping proposed and promoted the “Silk Road Economic Belt” and “21st Century Maritime Silk Road” major initiatives, “One Belt and One Road” construction uphold the principle of co-business, co-build, sharing the work of construction of the “Belt and Road” upholds the principles of common consent, construction and sharing, practices the concepts of openness, greenness and integrity, pursues high standards, benefits people’s livelihood and sustainable goals, and is committed to promoting policy communication, facility connection, smooth trade, capital integration and people-to-people exchanges to achieve high-quality development, becoming a popular public product worldwide and an important practical platform for building a community of human destiny. In 2020, China and ASEAN became each other’s largest trading partners for the first time, the largest trading partner of the European Union for the first time, and the largest foreign investment inflow in the world for the first time. We have completed the negotiations on the China-EU investment agreement as scheduled, signed the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement with all parties concerned, and announced that we will actively consider joining the Comprehensive and Progressive Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement, demonstrating our firm commitment to openness and cooperation.

  Fourthly, we will deepen and expand our all-round, multi-level, wide-ranging and three-dimensional external work layout and build a global partnership network. 

  • Deepen the development of China-Russia comprehensive strategic cooperative partnership in the new era and to maintain a high level of China-Russia strategic cooperation. [Note: for an explanation of the levels of China’s various international relationships see China’s Diplomacy: How Many Kinds of Major and Minor Partner “Relations” 夥伴關係 Does China Have? End note
  • Emphasize that the U.S. side and the Chinese side should move in the same direction, work together to build a China-U.S. relationship without conflict or confrontation, mutual respect, and win-win cooperation, and resolutely oppose the U.S. side’s words and actions that harm our interests, and firmly defend national sovereignty, security, and development interests. 
  • Strengthen communication and cooperation with European countries and the EU, actively build the four major partnerships between China and Europe on peace, growth, reform and civilization, deepen cooperation in climate change, environmental protection and the digital economy, and jointly safeguard multilateralism. 
  • Actively promote good-neighborly and friendly cooperation with neighboring countries, steadily strengthen relations with Northeast Asia, South Asia, Central Asia, the Middle East, and South Pacific countries, and continuously expand cooperation with ASEAN and other regional organizations. 
  • Solidarity and cooperation with Africa, Latin America and other developing countries continue to deepen, and relations with the African Union and LAC have become closer.

  Fifth, actively leading the reform and construction of the global governance system, contributing Chinese wisdom, Chinese ideas and Chinese solutions. General Secretary Xi Jinping has solemnly declared at the UN General Assembly and other major occasions that China firmly upholds the international system with the UN at its core and the international order based on international law, and forcefully rebuffs the so-called “rule-based international order” advocated by some countries. In the fields of peace and security, economic and social development, ecological civilization, climate change and mutual appreciation of civilizations, General Secretary Xi Jinping has comprehensively elaborated China’s views on international order, global governance, new security, new development, human rights, ecology and civilizational exchanges, emphasizing that we should discuss and work together on everyone’s affairs, resolutely countering unilateralism and bullying, and dealing a heavy blow to the “clash of civilizations theory” and the “theories of racial superiority and inferiority”. 

In his speech at the 75th UN General Assembly general debate, General Secretary Xi Jinping announced China’s carbon peak and carbon neutral targets, and at the Climate Ambition Summit, he announced new initiatives for China’s autonomous national contribution, leading a new journey in the global response to climate change. With China’s promotion and the active response and joint efforts of all parties, the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, the BRICS New Development Bank, the Silk Road Fund and other mechanisms have been established and become multilateral financial institutions with significant international influence. China has actively promoted the peaceful resolution of regional hotspot issues such as the Korean Peninsula, the Iranian nuclear issue and Afghanistan, participated in the formulation of rules in the fields of oceans, polar regions, outer space and anti-corruption, and carried out in-depth international counter-terrorism cooperation, demonstrating its role as a responsible power.

  Sixth, effectively prevent and resolve various types of risks and challenges, and firmly safeguard national interests and national dignity. On a series of major issues such as Taiwan, Hong Kong, Xinjiang, Tibet, the sea, epidemics, and human rights, we will be courageous and aggressive, firmly defend national political security, and firmly safeguard national interests and national dignity. We firmly uphold the one-China principle on the Taiwan issue, win many tough battles on issues related to Hong Kong, border, Tibet and human rights, and never allow any external forces to interfere in China’s internal affairs. We will vigorously respond to provocations of maritime infringement and maintain the stability of the general situation in the South China Sea. Resolutely oppose unilateral sanctions and “long-arm jurisdiction“. Practice the concept of diplomacy for the people and enhance the ability to safeguard overseas interests. We will participate deeply in the reform of the World Trade Organization, the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and other international institutions, and safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of developing countries, including China.

  Seventh, continue to enhance exchanges and mutual understanding with other countries in the world. We will comprehensively promote Xi Jinping’s thought on socialism with Chinese characteristics for a new era and Xi Jinping’s thought on diplomacy, thoroughly explain to the international community the nature, purpose and principles of the Communist Party of China, clarify China’s road system, development direction and strategic intentions, and explain that China’s new development pattern will bring important new opportunities for all countries in the world. We will also promote the effectiveness of China’s experience in epidemic prevention and control and its positive contribution to the global fight against epidemics, strengthen the exchange of experience in governance with relevant countries, and advocate dialogue among civilizations on an equal footing, exchange and mutual understanding, and common development.

  Eighth, insist that the major power of diplomacy rests with the Party Central Committee, and strengthen the centralized and unified leadership of the Party Central Committee in foreign affairs work. Under the overall plan of the Central Committee’s comprehensive deepening reform, the Central Leading Group on Foreign Affairs has been changed to the Central Foreign Affairs Work Committee to strengthen the top-level design, overall layout, coordination, overall promotion and supervision of the implementation of diplomatic and foreign affairs work. [Note: For details how this change affected united front work see Job Description: Chinese Communist Party United Front Work Department End note] Under the centralized and unified leadership of the Party Central Committee, foreign relations among political parties, the National People’s Congress, the government, the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, the military, local governments and people’s organizations have flourished, and the Party has consolidated the general synergy of foreign affairs work with the overall situation and coordination of all parties.

  The historical and groundbreaking achievements of the Party’s external work since the 18th CPC National Congress lie in the personal command, deployment and efforts of General Secretary Xi Jinping, the strong leadership of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping at the core and the powerful advantages of the socialist system with Chinese characteristics, the scientific guidance of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era and Xi Jinping Thought on Diplomacy, and the concerted efforts of the whole Party and the whole nation.

II. Reviewing the great and glorious history of the Party’s diplomatic and foreign affairs work over the past century, there have been our most important experiences and the conclusions we draw from them:

  (1) Always adhere to the guiding position of Marxism and lead the Party’s diplomatic and foreign affairs work in the right direction. General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out that “the history of our Party is a history of constantly promoting the sinicization of Marxism, a history of constantly promoting theoretical innovation and theoretical creation.” The scientific and correct nature of Marxism is also fully reflected in the Party’s diplomatic and foreign affairs work. Our Party has always insisted on analyzing and grasping the international situation and historical trends with the basic principles of Marxism, observing the world, understanding the world and transforming the world with the worldview and methodology of Marxism, correctly handling the relationship between China and the world, constantly promoting innovation in diplomatic concepts, practices and mechanisms and institutions, and gradually forming a diplomatic theoretical system reflecting Marxist positions, views and methods and with Chinese characteristics. Since the 18th CPC National Congress [2012], the Party’s diplomatic theory and practice have entered a new stage and a new period, resulting in Xi Jinping’s diplomatic thought, which will surely continue to guide great power diplomacy with Chinese characteristics in the new era to move forward.

  (2) Always adhere to the people-centered development ideology and firmly grasp the fundamental purpose of the Party’s diplomatic and foreign affairs work. General Secretary Xi Jinping stressed that “the century-old history of our Party is a history of practicing the Party’s original mission, a history of the Party and the people being connected, breathing together and sharing a common destiny.” The fundamental starting and ending point of the Party’s diplomatic and foreign affairs work is to adhere to and implement the purpose of serving the people wholeheartedly, and to realize, safeguard and develop the fundamental interests of the broadest number of people in diplomatic and foreign affairs work. Diplomatic and foreign affairs work should continue to meet the people’s aspirations for a better life by promoting the development of the Party and the state, so that the people will continue to enhance their sense of acquisition, happiness and security from the development of the Party’s diplomatic and foreign affairs work. In recent years, we have repeatedly taken decisive and powerful measures to ensure the safety of Chinese citizens overseas in the face of sudden political changes, war and turmoil, and major natural disasters, effectively implementing the Party’s people-centered philosophy of governance into all aspects of diplomatic and foreign affairs work.

  (3) Always adhere to the Party center and act in light of the overall situation, and strive to create a favorable external environment for national development and security. General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out that we should “coordinate the two major situations, domestic and international, and the two major issues of development and security, firmly grasp the main line of adhering to peaceful development and promoting national rejuvenation, safeguard national sovereignty, security and development interests, create a more favorable international environment for peaceful development, maintain and extend the important strategic opportunity period for China’s development, and contribute to the realization of The Party’s diplomatic and foreign affairs work. This has always been to provide a strong guarantee for the achievement of the ‘Two Centenaries‘ goal and the realization of the Chinese dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. The Party’s diplomatic and foreign affairs work has always made it a fundamental task to create a favorable international environment for the peaceful development of China. 

Since the founding of New China, we have constantly adjusted our foreign policy to serve the central tasks of the Party and the state in accordance with the changes in the world landscape and the characteristics of the international situation at different times. 

Since the reform and opening up, we have actively integrated into the world economic system, promoted open, inclusive, inclusive, balanced and win-win economic globalization, advocated the building of an open world economy, and continuously deepened cooperation with other countries in the world in the fields of trade and investment. Based on the new development stage, foreign affairs work should serve to implement the new development concept, build a new development pattern, achieve high-quality development, take expanding domestic demand as the strategic base, promote greater scope, wider fields, deeper opening up and mutually beneficial cooperation, promote high-quality construction of “one belt and one road” to move steadily and far, and constantly shape international cooperation and New advantages in international cooperation and competition.

(4) Always adhere to an independent foreign policy and unswervingly follow the road of peaceful development. 

  • General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out that “taking the road of peaceful development is a strategic choice made by our Party in accordance with the trend of development of the times and the fundamental interests of our country.” 
  • We have unswervingly adhered to our independent foreign policy, formulating and implementing foreign policies that are in line with our national conditions from the perspective of our own national attributes, our position of strength and the international environment in which we find ourselves. 
  • We have consistently followed the path of peaceful development, pursued an open strategy of mutual benefit and win-win, constantly improved our diplomatic layout on the principles of independence, autonomy, peace and mutual benefit, promoted a generally stable and balanced framework of major power relations, strengthened good-neighborly relations with neighboring countries in accordance with the concept of goodwill and tolerance and the policy of neighborly diplomacy, enhanced good-neighborly relations with the majority of developing countries by upholding the correct concept of righteousness and benefit and the concept of true goodwill. 
  • We also uphold the correct concept of righteousness and benefit and the concept of truthfulness and good faith to enhance solidarity and cooperation with developing countries, actively do a good job in multilateral diplomacy, and continuously build and deepen the global partnership network. 

  (5) Always adhere to the spirit of struggle, dare to struggle, be good at struggle, and firmly safeguard national sovereignty, security and development interests. General Secretary Xi Jinping stressed, “We must adhere to the road of peaceful development, but we must not give up our legitimate rights and interests, and must not sacrifice the core national interests. No foreign country should expect us to trade our core interests or swallow the bitter fruit of damaging our sovereignty, security and development interests.” In the face of international changes and external risk challenges, our Party has always adhered to the spirit of struggle, always implemented the overall national security concept, coordinated the two major issues of development and security, and made every effort to safeguard the fundamental interests of the country. The more China develops and grows in the future, the more prominent will be the various kinds of resistance and risks we encounter, the more difficult and onerous will be the task of safeguarding national sovereignty, security and development interests, and the more important will be the need to carry out a great struggle with many new historical characteristics.

  (6) Always stand on the side of developing countries and continuously consolidate solidarity and cooperation with them. General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out that “China’s international status as the world’s largest developing country has not changed” and “China insists on making developing countries the basis of its foreign policy, adheres to the correct concept of righteousness and benefit, and will always be a reliable friend and sincere partner of developing countries”. Insisting on the positioning of developing countries is not only determined by the Party’s basic line and China’s realistic national conditions, but also an important guideline that we must firmly grasp in our foreign work in the coming period. China will work hand in hand with developing countries for a long time to achieve common development and prosperity.

  (7) Always insist on seeking truth from facts, be determined to develop and innovate, and promote the Party’s diplomatic and foreign affairs work to continuously break new ground. General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out that “seeking truth from facts is the fundamental viewpoint of Marxism, the fundamental requirement for the Chinese Communists to understand the world and transform it, and the basic ideological method, working method and leadership method of our Party”, and that “innovation is always the historical responsibility of members of the Chinese Communist Party. Seeking truth from facts, pioneering and innovation are the important treasures of our Party’s continuous new achievements, and they are also the important principles of our Party’s diplomatic and foreign affairs theories and practices to keep abreast of the times and keep the righteousness of the new. The Party has always acted in the common interests of the Chinese people and the people of the world, based on the evolving international situation, determined its foreign policy according to the rights and wrongs of the matter itself, and constantly explored and summarized its regular understanding and methods to carry on the past and open up the future, thus creating a new situation of great power diplomacy with Chinese characteristics.

  (8) Always insist on the integration of safeguarding its own interests and promoting common development in the world, and promote the building of a community of human destiny. General Secretary Xi Jinping stressed that “the Communist Party of China has always made it its mission to make new and greater contributions to mankind” and “we call on all peoples to work together to build a community of human destiny and to build a world of lasting peace, universal security, common prosperity, openness, inclusiveness, cleanliness and beauty “. Our Party is a political party that works for the happiness of the Chinese people and struggles for the cause of human progress. The CPC and the Chinese people have always been builders of world peace, contributors to global development and maintainers of international order, firmly supporting the central role of the United Nations in international affairs and firmly upholding the purposes and principles of the UN Charter. It is based on our Party’s consistent lofty ideals and pursuits that we should always hold high the banner of peace, development, cooperation and win-win situation, always stand at the forefront of the trend of the times, and work with other countries to take forward the noble cause of human peace and development, which reflects the universal voice of all countries in the world seeking peace, seeking development, promoting cooperation and seeking win-win situation.

  (9) Always insist on uniting all the forces that can be united. General Secretary Xi Jinping pointed out that China “unswervingly develops friendly cooperation with other countries on the basis of the five principles of peaceful coexistence and promotes the building of a new type of international relations based on mutual respect, fairness and justice, and win-win cooperation”. We uphold the principle that “like-mindedness is a partner while those with whom we seek common ground while reserving differences is also a partner”, and our partnership with other countries and regions around the world is constantly developing. We do not draw lines by ideology, do not engage in “small circles”, and insist on developing friendly and cooperative relations with countries around the world with common interests as the bond and win-win cooperation as the principle, and we have friends all over the world.

  (10) Diplomatic and foreign affairs cadres must always be determined to building up the Communist Party, being loyal to the country, being loyal to the people, be firm in upholding the political line, do their job well with an excellent working style while maintaining strict discipline. General Secretary Xi Jinping stressed that the diplomatic and foreign affairs cadre should always be loyal to the Party and dedicated to the country, always be open-minded and committed to the cause, always be proactive in learning and self-reinventing, and always be responsible to the Party leadership and the and strict governance of the Party. General Secretary Xi Jinping is very concerned about and attaches great importance to the education and training of diplomatic and foreign affairs cadres. At the 2018 Central Foreign Affairs Work Conference, he emphasized the need to build a good foreign affairs workforce under the new situation, strengthen education on ideals and beliefs, improve the professional ability and comprehensive quality of the diplomatic and foreign affairs cadre, and encouraged all diplomatic and foreign affairs workers to make further efforts, work hard, show new weather and new performance, open up a new situation and a new horizon, and continuously We will continue to write a new chapter of great power diplomacy with Chinese characteristics in the new era. Over the years, generations of diplomatic and foreign affairs cadres have been loyal to the Party, to the country and to the people, willing to devote themselves to their work, and have made important contributions to the Party and the country, and to the people of the motherland.

  In the final analysis, our most important lesson has always been to adhere to the centralized and unified leadership of the Party Central Committee on foreign affairs work, which has been the fundamental guarantee for the Party’s diplomatic and foreign affairs work over the past century as we have overcome obstacles and overcome difficulties, and constantly gone from one victory to the next. History and practice have repeatedly proved that only by always adhering to the centralized and unified leadership of the Party’s foreign affairs work can we firmly grasp the correct direction of foreign affairs work in the midst of international changes; only by always adhering to the centralized and unified leadership of the Party’s foreign affairs work can we unify our thoughts [Note:the importance of “unifying thinking” tongyi sixiang 统一思想 through constant ideological and propaganda work has been a constant theme in Party documents. End note] and actions at major historical junctures and key points, maintain firm confidence and determination, and be fearless and courageous in the face of danger. 

Only by consistently adhering to the centralized and unified leadership of the Party Central Committee in foreign affairs can we plan and coordinate in a comprehensive manner in the face of various complex situations and difficulties and obstacles, so that we can gather the strength and resources of all parties to win the hard and protracted battles in the foreign struggle; only by consistently adhering to the centralized and unified leadership of the Party Central Committee in foreign affairs can we better coordinate the two major situations of domestic and international affairs, development and security, and promote the development of foreign affairs with a broader strategic vision. With a broader strategic vision to promote the Party and the country’s central work to achieve new and greater achievements. In short, as long as we unswervingly adhere to the centralized and unified leadership of the Party’s foreign affairs work and resolutely achieve the “Two Maintains” [Note: The Two Maintains liange weihu 两个维护 are “Maintain Xi Jinping’s position as the core of the Party Central Committee and the core of the whole Party” and “Maintain the authority and centralized leadership of the Party Central Committee” End note] we will be able to overcome all the difficulties and obstacles on the road and achieve the great historical task of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

III. Foreign Affairs Work at Present and in the Future

  The global pandemic of the new coronavirus pneumonia is accelerating major changes in the world. Fundamental changes in international relations are underway. The international situation is unstable and uncertain and the world is entering a period of turbulent change. The world’s major forces have accelerated their strategic adjustments, and the intertwining of factors in the international environment have become more prominent. At the same time, the overall trend and direction of world development has not changed, peace and development remain the theme of the times, and prosperity and stability, cooperation and win-win situation are still the hearts and minds of the international community. Building a community of human destiny and a new type of international relations, upholding and practicing multilateralism are in line with the trend of development of the times and the common interests of all countries, and have won more and more understanding and support from the international community.

  This year is the centennial birthday of the Communist Party of China, and it is also the opening year of the comprehensive implementation of the 14th Five-Year Plan and the 2035 Vision. Foreign affairs work should be guided by Xi Jinping’s thought on socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era and Xi Jinping’s thought on diplomacy, coordinate the two major situations of domestic and international affairs, development and security, base on the new development stage, implement the new development concept, build a new development pattern, achieve high-quality development, hold high the banner of building a community of human destiny, adhere to the correct view of history, the overall situation and role, enhance the awareness of opportunities and risks In order to create a favorable external environment for the comprehensive construction of a modernized socialist country, we should accurately recognize changes, scientifically adapt to changes, and actively seek changes, cultivate opportunities in crises and open up new situations in the midst of changes.

  (1) Play the role of the leader of diplomacy strategic leadership, overall consideration, comprehensive planning of external work. 

  • We should take the series of major foreign activities attended by General Secretary Xi Jinping as the main line to lead and drive the all-round external work. 
  • We will give full play to the positive effects of General Secretary Xi Jinping’s attendance at the World Economic Forum’s Davos Agenda Dialogue, the opening ceremony of the Boao Forum for Asia’s 2021 annual meeting, the leaders’ climate summit and his important speech, and make careful preparations to attend the G20 leaders’ summit and other important multilateral meetings, and do our best to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party of China. 
  • We will also do our best to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party of China, and organize the 2nd United Nations Global Conference on Sustainable Transport, the 15th Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity and other large-scale foreign-related activities.

  (2) Promote all-round opening and cooperation with the outside world, and serve to build a new development pattern. 

  • Adhere to innovation-driven development, and strengthen international scientific and technological exchanges and cooperation. 
  • Further deepen reform and expand openness, optimize the business environment, and promote the dual cycle of domestic and international promote each other. 
  • Promote the construction of “one belt and one road” quality development, accelerate the construction of health, digital, green Silk Road. 
  • Continue to play a good service trade fair, Fair, Canton Fair and other important platforms.
  • Deepen multi-bilateral and regional economic and trade cooperation, and build a global network of high-standard free trade zones. 
  • Deepen cooperation with countries to combat the epidemic and promote global economic recovery.

  (3) Adhere to the systemic concept and deepen and improve the layout of all-round diplomacy. 

  • Take the celebration of the 20th anniversary of the signing of the China-Russia Treaty of Good Neighborliness and Friendship and Cooperation as an opportunity to strengthen the comprehensive strategic cooperative partnership between China and Russia in the new era. 
  • Urge the U.S. side, in accordance with the spirit of the call between the two heads of state, to move in the same direction as the Chinese side, to jointly uphold the principles of non-conflict and non-confrontation, mutual respect, and win-win cooperation, to carry out in-depth cooperation in climate change and other areas, and to promote the healthy and stable development of China-U.S. relations. 
  • Strengthen China-EU coordination and cooperation, and deepen cooperation in climate change, digital economy and other areas. 
  • Do a good job in neighboring countries, promote mutually beneficial cooperation, and push forward the quality and upgrading of China-ASEAN relations. 
  • Take China-Africa, China-Arabia and China-Latin America forums as the leading mechanisms to expand solidarity and cooperation with developing countries on all fronts. 
  • Properly deal with the Korean Peninsula, Iranian nuclear, Afghanistan and other international and regional hotspot issues.

  (4) Firmly safeguard national sovereignty, security and development interests. 

  • Resolutely thwart international anti-China forces’ attempts to ensure regime and institutional security. 
  • Resolutely fight the active battles on Taiwan, Hong Kong, border, Tibet, epidemic and human rights issues. 
  • Resolutely safeguard our territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests, and maintain the overall stability of the regional situation and major power relations. 
  • Increase international counter-terrorism and law enforcement cooperation, and safeguard the legitimate rights and interests of our citizens and enterprises overseas.

  (5) Promote the reform and construction of the global governance system. 

  • Continue to firmly uphold the international system with the United Nations at its core and the international order based on international law, firmly uphold the purposes and principles of the UN Charter, and promote genuine multilateralism, both by adhering to the core values and basic principles of multilateralism and by reforming and improving the global governance system on the basis of broad consultation and consensus building. 
  • Resolutely oppose the use of ideological lines to create “small circles” and unilateralism in the name of multilateralism. We will actively lead the reform of the World Trade Organization, adhere to our position as a developing country, and firmly uphold the multilateral trade mechanism. 
  • Actively participate in the reform process of the World Health Organization, deepen participation in global public health governance, and promote the building of a human health community on the ground. 
  • Continue to strengthen the construction of new mechanisms such as the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, the BRICS New Development Bank and the Silk Road Fund
  • Actively promote international cooperation on climate change and participate in international governance on networks, deep sea, polar regions and outer space.

  The first hundred-year goal of building a moderately prosperous society in China is in sight, and the new journey of building a modern socialist country has begun.

  • We need to enhance the “Four Consciousnesses“, [Note via Baidu: “Four consciousnesses”: refers to political consciousness, overall situation consciousness, core consciousness, and alignment consciousness. These “four consciousnesses” were first proposed at the Politburo meeting of the CPC Central Committee on January 29, 2016. General Secretary Xi Jinping’s speech at the celebration of the 95th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party of China emphasized that the comrades of the whole party should strengthen their political awareness, overall situation awareness, core awareness, and alignment awareness, and earnestly achieve loyalty to the party, share their concerns about the party, take responsibility for the party, and do The party is responsible.“ End note],
  • Be steadfast in the “Four Self-Confidences” [Note: The Four Self-Confidences are Self-confidence in the socialist path; Self-confidence in China’s political ideology; Self-confidence in the Chinese system; and Self-confidence in China’s traditional culture. End note] in order to achieve the “Two Maintains“. 
  • We should resolutely implement the spirit of the important instructions of General Secretary Xi Jinping and the decision and deployment of the Party Central Committee. 
  • We should be more pioneering and enterprising, and work hard to open up a new situation of great power diplomacy with Chinese characteristics in the new era, to provide a strong guarantee for a good start in building a modern socialist country, to make a new and greater contribution to the realization of the Chinese dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, and to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the founding of the Party with outstanding achievements.

[For more on the history of the Chinese Communist Party’s and the PRC’s foreign relations see recent talks by Chinese scholars available on YouTube:


[Here is the original Chinese language text from the Party’s ideological journal Seeking Truth. Text from Chinese websites I usually copy below the translation just in case it disappears or changes. One advantage of paper over cyber resources. The genius of the Chinese Communist Party is that it not only shapes China’s future but that it remolds China’s past as well.]

Xinjiang Truth, Fiction

24 Lies About Xinjiang 


Some anti-China forces in the West, including the United States, have concocted and disseminated plenty of false information about China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

Xinjiang-related issues are not about human rights, ethnicity or religion at all, but about combating violent terrorism and separatism. The Chinese government has launched anti-terrorism and deradicalization efforts in Xinjiang in accordance with the law to protect people's lives, which has garnered ardent support of people from all ethnic groups.

People in the region continue to embrace peace and prosperity and Xinjiang society continues to develop steadily. These facts are the most powerful tool to debunk lies on Xinjiang. Facts and truthfulness will eventually bust all lies. Please see the attachment for the full text. 



Northwest China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region is a land of beauty, diversity and unity. Fifty-six ethnic groups are closely united as family members, just like pomegranate seeds that stick together, to build a beautiful homeland, maintain social stability, and realize economic development and prosperity, flourishing cultural heritage preservation, ethnic unity and harmony, and freedom of religious belief, with people of different ethnic groups living and working in peace and contentment.

However, some anti-China forces in the West, including the United States, have concocted and disseminated plenty of false information about Xinjiang. They have smeared China's image, slandered its policies on Xinjiang, interfered in China's internal affairs, and attempted to deceive the international community and disrupt the stability and development of Xinjiang.

Lies may mislead people for a while, but cannot win the trust of the world. Facts and truthfulness will eventually bust all lies.

Xinjiang-related issues are not about human rights, ethnicity or religion at all, but about combating violent terrorism and separatism. The Chinese government has launched anti-terrorism and de-radicalization efforts in Xinjiang in accordance with the law to protect people's lives, which has garnered ardent support of people from all ethnic groups. People in the region continue to embrace peace and prosperity and Xinjiang society continues to develop steadily. These facts are the most powerful tool to debunk lies surrounding Xinjiang.

We have chosen some typical Xinjiang-related rumors and lies fabricated by anti-China forces, and debunked them with facts to set the record straight.

Lie No. 1Mike Pompeo claimed that the Chinese government had committed "genocide" against the Uygurs and other ethnic minorities in Xinjiang.

Facts: In recent years, the Uygur population in Xinjiang has been growing steadily. From 2010 to 2018, the Uygur population in Xinjiang rose from 10.17 million to 12.72 million, an increase of 2.55 million or 25.04 percent. The growth rate of the Uygur population is not only higher than that of Xinjiang's total population, which is 13.99 percent, but also higher than that of all ethnic minority groups, which is 22.14 percent, let alone the Han population's two percent.

– Xinjiang enjoys social stability, with the people living and working in peace and contentment. The region has made unprecedented achievements in economic and social development and improvement of people's livelihood. From 2014 to 2019, the GDP of Xinjiang increased from 919.59 billion yuan to 1.36 trillion yuan, with an average annual growth rate of 7.2 percent. The per capita disposable income in Xinjiang increased by an average annual rate of 9.1 percent. Remarkable achievements have been made in poverty alleviation. All 3.09 million impoverished people in Xinjiang have been lifted out of poverty. The absolute poverty problem in Xinjiang has been resolved historically.

– The legitimate rights and interests of the people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang have been protected. All ethnic groups, regardless of their population, have the same legal status and enjoy various rights in accordance with the law, including participation in the management of state affairs, freedom of religious belief, receiving education, using their own languages, and preserving their traditional culture.

Lie No. 2Adrian Zenz released reports claiming Xinjiang has carried out "forced sterilization" on the Uygur women, resulting in a sharp decline in the Uygur population.

Facts: Adrian Zenz is not a so-called "expert on China studies," but a member of the far-right group "Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation" sponsored by the U.S. government. He is also a key figure in an anti-China organization set up by U.S. intelligence agencies and a notorious racist.

– Adrian Zenz's "reports" are full of fabrications and data manipulation. The so-called evidence of "forced sterilization" in the "reports" claims that 80 percent of the new intrauterine device (IUD) insertion procedures in China for 2018 were performed in Xinjiang and that the natural population growth rate in Hotan and Kashgar of Xinjiang in 2018 was only 2.58 per 1,000 people. The "evidence" is extremely inconsistent with the facts.

– According to data from the China Health Statistics Yearbook 2019, published by the National Health Commission, the number of new IUD insertion procedures in Xinjiang in 2018 came in at 328,475, accounting for only 8.7 percent of China's total, which was 3,774,318.

– According to the 2019 Xinjiang statistical yearbook released by the statistics bureau of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, the natural population growth rates in Kashgar and Hotan were 6.93 per 1,000 people and 2.96 per 1,000 people, respectively, in 2018.

Lie No. 3BBC Newsnight once reported that Zumrat Dawut (Zamira Dawut) was "forced to go through sterilization" in a vocational education and training center.

Facts: Zamira Dawut has never studied in any vocational education and training center. Her elder brother Abduhelil Dawut has previously clarified that.

– She claimed that after "her release" from a center, she was forced to be sterilized and her uterus was removed because she has already had three children. In fact, in March 2013, when Zamira Dawut gave birth to her third child in Urumqi Maternal and Child Care Service Center, she signed a childbirth consent form voluntarily to have a cesarean section and tubal ligation, and then the center conducted the operation. She was never sterilized, not to mention uterus removal.

– She claimed that her aging father was repeatedly detained and investigated by Xinjiang authorities, and died not long ago from an unknown cause. In fact, her father had been living with his children until he died from heart disease on October 12, 2019. He had never been investigated or placed in detention. Her brothers Abduhelil Dawut and Elkin Dawut have both substantiated the facts.

– She claimed that she was served with pork in a relative's home. In fact, the relative she referred to is her elder brother Abduhelil Dawut's pairing relative Zhao Qilin. In October 2017, Abduhelil was paired up with Zhao as "relatives," as part of an ethnic unity program. In January 2018, Abduhelil was invited to Zhao's home as a guest, in company with his younger sister Zamira Dawut. The meal was prepared by Zhao's mother, who herself is an ethnic Hui and a Muslim, and only eats halal food. It was impossible for her to provide a "pork meal."

Lie No. 4: In interviews with foreign media, Mihrigul Tursun said that she was forced to take unknown medications in a vocational education and training center and was diagnosed as infertile by American doctors.

Facts: On April 21, 2017, Mihrigul Tursun was taken into custody by the public security bureau of Qiemo County on suspicion of inciting ethnic hatred and discrimination. During this period, she was found to have infectious diseases such as syphilis. Out of humanitarian consideration, the county public security bureau terminated the measures against her on May 10, 2017. Except for the 20 days of criminal detention, Mihrigul was totally free while in China. She was never sentenced, nor did she study in any vocational education and training center, let alone being forced to take medications. There are no records of her undergoing a sterilization procedure in China.

Lie No. 5: Xinjiang sets up "re-education camps" to detain millions of Uygur Muslims.

Facts: Xinjiang has never had any so-called "re-education camps."

– The vocational education and training centers established in Xinjiang in accordance with the law were education and training institutions in nature and were preventive counter-terrorism and deradicalization measures taken by Xinjiang. The aim was to eradicate the breeding ground for terrorism and extremism from the source. 

The relevant measures drew on the international community's experience in combating terrorism and deradicalization and implemented the idea of using development, education, and other resources to curb extremist ideologies, as advocated in the UN Plan of Action to Prevent Violent Extremism. It fully complied with the principles and spirit of a series of international counter-terrorism resolutions, including the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy. 

Xinjiang's counter-terrorism and deradicalization measures have achieved positive results. There have been no violent terrorist cases for over four consecutive years in the region.

– The vocational education and training centers offered a curriculum that included standard spoken and written Chinese, understanding of the law and training in vocational skills to achieve the goal of deradicalization. By October 2019, all the trainees at such centers had completed their studies and graduated, and most of them have found stable jobs and lived a peaceful life.

Lie No. 6: Xinjiang vocational education and training centers exercised "religious control," political indoctrination, intimidation and torture over the trainees.

Facts: The vocational education and training centers fully respected and protected trainees' freedom of religious belief, ethnic customs and habits, and the right to use their own ethnic spoken and written languages. The trainees could decide on their own whether to take part in legal religious activities when they got home; a variety of nutritious Muslim food were provided free of charge; and the regulations, curriculum, and menus at the centers all used local ethnic languages as well as standard Chinese.

– The vocational education and training centers fully guaranteed the trainees' personal freedom and dignity. They employed a residential education model that allowed trainees to go back home on a regular basis, ask for leave to attend to personal affairs, and enjoy the freedom of correspondence. The centers strictly prohibited any form of humiliation or mistreatment. There were no such things as "suppressing ethnic minorities" or "persecuting Muslims."

– The centers had well-equipped facilities. The dormitories were equipped with radio, TV sets, air-conditioners or electric fans. Medical facilities, legal-counseling and mental-counseling rooms provided relevant services free of charge. The centers had sports venues for basketball, volleyball and table tennis, facilities for cultural activities, such as reading rooms, computer rooms and movie-screening rooms, as well as cultural and art performance venues, such as small auditoriums and open-air stages. 

Extracurricular activities, such as folk songs and dances, sports competitions, etc., were held regularly to meet the various needs of trainees in study, life and entertainment to the maximum extent. All the trainees were covered in the public pension and medical insurance schemes, and were entitled to free health examinations.

Lie No. 7: Some overseas Uygur people have been claiming "their relatives or friends in Xinjiang cannot be contacted and have gone missing" on overseas media and social media platforms.

Facts: Xinjiang protects the freedom of travel of people of all ethnic groups, including the Uygurs, and their communication with overseas relatives according to the law.

– Verification with relevant departments shows that some allegedly "missing" people, mentioned by the "East Turkistan" separatists overseas, are living a normal life, while other "missing" incident reports are pure fabrications.

– The Australian Broadcasting Corporation once reported that Azmat Omar, a Chinese citizen living in Australia, claimed that he had lost contact with his family in Xinjiang, including his father, stepmother, three brothers, two sisters and over 20 other relatives. However, the fact is that all his relatives in China are living a normal life.

– During a UN Human Rights Council session in February 2020, the "World Uygur Congress" organized an activity outside the Palace of Nations in Geneva. They posted pictures of so-called "Uygurs persecuted by the Chinese government." These pictures were later discredited as disinformation. Those in the pictures are living normal lives. Separatist groups stole their photos and personal information.

Lie No. 8: Xinjiang uses the coronavirus to wipe out Uygurs, with many tragic deaths after infection.

Facts: Since the COVID-19 outbreak, Xinjiang has resolutely fought against the virus and effectively contained the epidemic within a short period. Thanks to the support of the expert team from the State Council's joint prevention and control mechanism, the local government made all-out efforts to treat patients. 

The regional government adopted a targeted prevention and control approach with differentiated, scientific measures. It also strengthened epidemic prevention and control in places such as crowded and key venues to minimize the risk of virus spread. The local government has also made every effort to ensure the production and supply of food and other daily necessities while maintaining their sufficiency, quality and stable prices. 

These measures were widely supported by people of different ethnic groups in Xinjiang. Thanks to the concerted efforts, all 826 confirmed COVID-19 cases in Xinjiang have been discharged from hospital after treatment, without even a single death.

Lie No. 9: China systematically transferred 80,000 Uygurs out of Xinjiang and assigned them as "forced labor" to factories in other provinces.

Facts: The government of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region works with a strong sense of responsibility to promote employment. 

Southern Xinjiang was an underdeveloped area with a low degree of industrialization and urbanization, where many people suffered from poverty due to lack of job opportunities. Based on the realities, local governments at all levels have taken active measures to help those in need of secure employment. These measures included creating job opportunities nearby, facilitating work in other areas in Xinjiang, or transferring workforces to other provinces and cities paired up to assist Xinjiang. 

Such measures have helped residents shake off poverty through employment and lead fulfilling lives, while guaranteeing various ethnic groups' right to labor and employment.

– Since 2018, 151,000 people in poverty-stricken families in southern Xinjiang have secured jobs away from their homes. Most of them worked in other parts of Xinjiang, while about 14,700 worked outside the region with the help of fellow villagers and relatives, or through human resources agencies. Those who work outside Xinjiang have their rights to customs, language and culture, and religious beliefs fully guaranteed. Many earn an annual income of 45,000 yuan, several times higher than the income from farming or working in their hometowns.

Lie No. 10: Xinjiang forced a large number of the Uygurs to pick cotton, contaminating the global supply chain.

Facts: A few years ago, when cotton matured in autumn, many migrant workers from Henan, Sichuan and other places would take trains to Xinjiang to pick cotton. They were called "the cotton-picking forces." Migrant workers of various ethnic groups in Xinjiang would also go to pick cotton. They worked together, cared for each other and forged a deep friendship. These cotton pickers in and out of Xinjiang were all voluntary, and their incomes could reach over 10,000 yuan in just a month.

– In recent years, with the development of science and technology, cotton production has been highly mechanized in Xinjiang. Even in the busy cotton harvesting season, there is no need for a large number of cotton pickers. For example, since 2015, most of the cotton in the Mongolian Autonomous Prefecture of Bayingolin in Xinjiang has been harvested by machines.

Lie No. 11: Xinjiang adopts an assimilation policy towards ethnic minorities in an attempt to systematically eliminate the Uygur culture.

Facts: All ethnic groups in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region enjoy full freedom to preserve or reform their own customs and habits. The local government strictly abides by the Constitution and laws and attaches great importance to the protection and development of the excellent traditional culture of all ethnic groups.

  • – The cultural heritage of all ethnic groups has been protected in Xinjiang. A batch of renowned architectural sites representing the preeminent historical and cultural heritage of the Uygurs, the Mongolians, the Huis, the Xibes and other ethnic groups have been properly renovated and preserved, including the Tomb of Afak Hoja in Kashgar, the Tomb of Tughluk Tumur in Huocheng, Zhaosu Lamasery, the Former Residence of a Mongolian Prince in Hejing, and Chimtoghrak Manor.
  • – The excellent traditional culture of the ethnic groups has been passed on. Traditional cultural events, such as the Uygur's "Meshrep," the Kazak's "Aytes," the Kirgiz's "Kobuz Ballad Singing Fair," the Mongolian "Nadam Fair," the Xibe's "West Moving Festival" and the Han's "Lantern Festival," have been widely carried out. A number of impressive dramas with rich ethnic and regional characteristics have been staged, such as the Uygur play "Gherip and Senem," the Kazak "Aytes," and the Kirgiz "Manaschi" ballad drama "Manas."
  • – The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region has fully protected the customs and habits of all ethnic groups in the diets, festivals, weddings and funerals. Large and medium-sized cities and small towns with Muslim people in Xinjiang maintain a certain number of halal restaurants; "halal canteens" or "halal kitchen facilities" are set up in major traffic arteries and institutions with ethnic minority employees; beef and mutton supplied to Muslim people are slaughtered, processed, stored, transported and sold according to their customs. All ethnic groups enjoy statutory holidays during their traditional festivals, such as Corban Festival and Eid al-Fitr.
  • – Currently, people of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang mainly use 10 spoken and written languages. Ethnic minority languages are widely applied in various sectors, including the judiciary, administration, education, press and publishing, radio and television, and the internet. Xinjiang People's Broadcasting Station offers 12 radio channels in five languages: Mandarin, Uygur, Kazak, Mongolian and Kirgiz. Primary and secondary schools in Xinjiang offer courses in ethnic minority languages, such as Uygur, Kazak, Kirgiz, Mongolian and Xibe. Chinese RMB banknotes have five languages on them: Chinese, Tibetan, Uygur, Mongolian and Zhuang.

Lie No. 12: Some places in Xinjiang destroyed graveyards of ethnic minority groups.

Facts: Xinjiang has always respected the funeral and burial customs of ethnic minorities and formulated a series of regulations and policies to protect their basic funeral and burial rights. Measures, including allocating designated land and establishing special public cemeteries, are taken for some minority groups who traditionally bury their deceased in the ground. Their traditional practices such as funeral pray, burial and holding Nazer (memorial activities), are preserved.

– With the economic and social development and the improvement of people's living standards in Xinjiang, governments at all levels have stepped up the planning and construction of public welfare cemeteries. Cemetery facilities and their environment are continuously improving. People of different ethnic groups in some places have relocated graveyards on their own free will.

Lie No. 13: The Chinese government sends children of ethnic minorities in Xinjiang to boarding schools and "forces" them to be separated from their parents.

Facts: The Compulsory Education Law of the People's Republic of China stipulates: "Where necessary, the people's government at the county level may set up boarding schools to ensure that school-age children and adolescents who are dwelling in scattered areas receive compulsory education." 

Xinjiang is a vast region with long distances between villages and towns, and it is not convenient for some students to go to school, making it hard to ensure their study quality. Parents have a heavy burden to transport their children to and from schools. To solve this problem, Xinjiang built 400 primary and secondary boarding schools in the 1980s. 

In recent years, Xinjiang, like the rest of the country, made scientific plans and reasonable arrangements for boarding school construction. They comply with relevant construction standards of the state and the autonomous region to ensure sufficient learning and living facilities. Time has proved that boarding education has become an effective measure to accelerate education modernization and aid targeted poverty alleviation in Xinjiang. Parents of students of all ethnic groups support the boarding school model.

– The construction of boarding schools is an arrangement made by Xinjiang in light of the actual conditions of the autonomous region to alleviate poverty through education and improve the quality of compulsory education. It helps improve education modernization at primary and secondary schools of ethnic minorities and promote exchanges among different ethnic groups in Xinjiang. The practice here is not fundamentally different from that of other parts of China or the rest of the world.

Lie No. 14: Schools in Xinjiang replace ethnic languages with Chinese to "brainwash" the students. Xinjiang has banned ethnic minority students from using their own languages and closed schools of the Uygur language.

Fact check: The Constitution of the People's Republic of China and the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Standard Spoken and Written Chinese Language stipulate that citizens have the right to learn and use the standard Chinese spoken and written language. The state provides them with related conditions. While promoting education in the Chinese language, Xinjiang also offers courses in the spoken and written languages of ethnic minority groups in accordance with the national curriculum plan for primary and secondary schools. This safeguards the right of students from the minority groups to learn their own spoken and written languages. It also effectively promotes the inheritance and development of the minority languages and cultures.

– Primary and secondary education in Xinjiang is conducted in seven languages. At present, preschools and primary and secondary schools across Xinjiang provide bilingual education in the national-standard spoken and written language, as well as one ethnic language. Learning to use the national-standard language can help people better integrate and adapt to modern society. It brings more convenience in studies, job hunting, communication, business, and work.

Lie No. 15: Xinjiang suppresses ethnic minorities under the pretext of fighting terrorism.

Facts: Incomplete statistics show that from 1990 to 2016, ethnic separatists, religious extremists, and violent terrorists plotted and conducted several thousand violent terrorist acts. They killed many innocent civilians and several hundred police officers and caused immeasurable property losses. These terrorist activities inflicted untold suffering on the people of various ethnic groups in Xinjiang.

– In the face of a complicated counter-terrorism situation and the demands from people of all ethnic groups to stop terrorism, Xinjiang has taken a series of active measures. 

Responding to the United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy and other counter-terrorism resolutions, Xinjiang has upheld the principle of not linking terrorism with any particular region, ethnic group, or religion. It acted within the law to crack down on violence and terrorist activities that violate human rights, endanger public security, undermine ethnic unity, and aim at separating the country. 

Since 2014, a total of 1,588 violent and terrorist groups have been taken out, 12,995 violent terrorists arrested, and 2,052 explosive devices seized. Such operations have effectively curbed the infiltration of extremism, significantly improved public security, and protected the right to life, right to health, right to development, and other basic rights of people of all ethnic groups. Xinjiang has reported no violent terrorist cases for more than four consecutive years.

Lie No. 16: The "fanghuiju" campaign, in which civil servants are dispatched to grass-roots communities to offer help to people of various ethnic groups, as well as the "ethnic unity campaign" and solidarity activities among cadres and people of different ethnic groups, are all adopted by Xinjiang with the aim of intervening in and monitoring Uygur families.

Facts: Xinjiang has been carrying out the "ethnic unity campaign" and solidarity activities among cadres and people of different ethnic groups since 2016. More than 1.1 million cadres and workers of different ethnic groups have paired up with 1.6 million people of different ethnic groups as "relatives" and made friends with each other. Among them, Han cadres have paired up with ethnic groups, including the Uygur. Cadres of ethnic minority groups, including the Uygur, have also paired up with Han people.

– Based on mutual exchange, communication, integration, respect and help, cadres and workers of different ethnic groups have given full play to their own advantages, guiding the grassroots residents to expand their approaches to prosperity, and helping them solve problems in healthcare, employment and education, and doing many good deeds that have won public support. 

According to the statistics, the cadres and workers participating in the "ethnic unity campaign" and solidarity activities among cadres and people of different ethnic groups have donated 940 million yuan and more than 49 million material items to the grassroots people, accomplishing some 18 million deeds that benefit locals.

Lie No. 17: Xinjiang monitors Uygur Muslims through ubiquitous cameras, mobile phone apps, the internet and other high-tech means.

Facts: In accordance with the law, Xinjiang has installed cameras in urban and rural public areas, major roads, transportation hubs and other public places in order to improve social governance and effectively prevent and crack down on crime. These measures have enhanced social security and won widespread support from people of all ethnic groups. The measures do not target any particular ethnic group.

– The use of modern scientific and technological products and big data to improve social governance is a common practice in the international community. According to the South China Morning Post, a new study found that Britain, Germany, France and the Netherlands are among the top 10 countries in the number of surveillance cameras in the world.

Lie No. 18: Chinese embassies and consulates have refused to renew the passports of overseas Uygur people, forcing them to return home to face extrajudicial detention or imprisonment.

Facts: Chinese citizens' personal freedom and rights of exit and entry are protected by law. As long as they are Chinese nationals and admit themselves that they are Chinese citizens, and do not violate Chinese laws and regulations, they can apply to the Chinese embassy or consulate where they live for the renewal or replacement of passports.

– Chinese embassies and consulates conduct their services in accordance with the Exit and Entry Administration Law of the People's Republic of China, the Passport Law of the People's Republic of China and other laws and regulations to protect the legitimate rights and interests of overseas Chinese of different ethnic groups. Chinese citizens from Xinjiang who apply for the renewal or replacement of passports at Chinese embassies and consulates have been accepted and approved after being examined to comply with relevant laws.

Lie No. 19: The Chinese government bans foreign journalists from going to Xinjiang for reporting.

Facts: Xinjiang is an open place. Foreign journalists are allowed to report in Xinjiang on condition that they abide by Chinese laws and go through relevant procedures, according to the Regulations of the People's Republic of China on News Coverage by Permanent Offices of Foreign Media Organizations and Foreign Journalists. There are no circumstances in which the Chinese government forbids foreign journalists to report in Xinjiang.

– Since the end of 2018, more than 1,200 people from over 100 countries and regions, including officials from international organizations, diplomats, journalists and religious leaders, have visited Xinjiang.

– From September 3 to 7, 2019, NBC reporters went to Xinjiang for reporting.

– In December 2020, BBC reporters went to Kuqa County and other places in Xinjiang for reporting.

Lie No. 20: The United Nations (UN) High Commissioner for Human Rights will be restricted from visiting Xinjiang.

Facts: China welcomes the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Michelle Bachelet to visit China and the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and has always maintained close communication with the UN.

Lie No. 21: Xinjiang suppresses Islam and freedom of religious belief.

Facts: Respecting and protecting the freedom of religious belief is a basic long-term policy of the Chinese government. Article 36 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China stipulates that Chinese citizens have freedom of religious belief. The principle of religious freedom enshrined in the Constitution has been fully implemented in Xinjiang. Xinjiang citizens' right to freedom of religious belief has been fully guaranteed. The religious feelings, belief-based needs and customs of religious believers have been fully respected, legal religious activities guaranteed by law, and religious and cultural heritage protected.

– Xinjiang has translated and published religious classics and books, such as the Koran and Selections from Al-Sahih Muhammad Ibn-Ismail al-Bukhari, in Mandarin Chinese, the Uygur, Kazak and Kirgiz languages, providing convenience for religious believers of all ethnic groups to acquire religious knowledge.

– Since 1996, the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region government has organized local Muslims to take charter flights for a pilgrimage every year, except for the cancellation due to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, and has provided high-quality services in entry and exit, medical care, catering, etc., so as to ensure the safe and orderly pilgrimage activities and ensure that local Muslims of all ethnic groups successfully complete their pilgrimage.

Lie No. 22: Xinjiang demolishes many mosques.

Facts: Mosques in Xinjiang meet the regular religious demands of followers in terms of quantity. Governments at various levels in Xinjiang have consistently improved the public services of mosques. 

The government has funded the introduction into mosques of running water, electricity, natural gas, roads, communication, radio and television, and libraries. Ablution facilities and flushing toilets have been installed. Mosques have also been equipped with medical services and electronic displays. 

They also have computers, electric fans or air conditioners, firefighting equipment, drinking water dispensers, shoe coverings or machines for shoe coverings, and lockers. These measures have been welcomed by religious personnel and believers.

Lie No. 23: Xinjiang "persecutes" religious personnel.

Facts: The cultivation and training of clerical personnel have been strengthened in Xinjiang. The region has 10 religious colleges and schools, including Xinjiang Islamic Institute, its eight branches in places like Kashgar, Hotan and Ili, and Xinjiang Islamic School. These colleges recruit a certain number of undergraduate, junior, and technical secondary school students every year, with student numbers exceeding 3,000.

Lie No. 24: Xinjiang bans fasting of Muslims.

Facts: Muslims of all ethnic groups in Xinjiang, in accordance with their teachings, canons, and traditional customs, practice regular religious activities such as fasting and Islamic festivals in mosques and their own homes. Such activities are totally of their own free will, without any interference or restriction.

– During Ramadan every year, it is an entirely personal choice for Muslims to fast or not fast. Governments at all levels in Xinjiang make every effort to ensure the market supply and security of religious activities of Eid al-Fitr and other festivals. [Source: Xinhua News Agency]

Losing Game

Washington is Playing a Losing Game with China

Chas W Freeman
America’s latest policies toward China will prove self-defeating. US–China relations now exemplify Freeman’s third law of strategic dynamics: for every hostile act there is a more hostile reaction.

US Secretary of State Antony Blinken (2nd R), above, joined by National Security Advisor Jake Sullivan (R), speaks while facing Yang Jiechi (2nd L), director of the Central Foreign Affairs Commission Office, and Wang Yi (L), China's State Councilor and Foreign Minister, at the opening session of US-China talks in Anchorage, Alaska, 18 March 2021 (Photo: Frederic J Brown/Pool via Reuters).

Washington would be easy to spot in a game of chess. It’s the player with no plan beyond an aggressive opening. That is no strategy at all. The failure to think several moves ahead matters.

Washington developed some well-founded complaints about Chinese economic behaviour — and launched a trade war. Washington was alarmed about China’s potential to outcompete America — and tried to cripple it with an escalating campaign of ‘maximum pressure’. Washington saw China as a threat to US military primacy — and sought to contain it.

US farmers have lost most of their US$24 billion Chinese market. US companies have had to accept lower profits, cut wages and jobs, defer wage hikes, and raise prices for American consumers. The US shift to managed trade has cost an estimated 245,000 American jobs, while shaving about US$320 billion off US GDP. American families are paying as much as US$1,277 more a year on average for consumer goods. There has been almost no reshoring of American jobs outsourced to China. The United States can expect job losses of 320,000 by 2025 and a GDP US$1.6 trillion less than it would have been.

China’s overall trade surplus rose to a new high of US$535 billion in 2020. Beijing improved its position by lowering barriers, striking free trade deals with countries other than the United States, and sponsoring a trade dispute-settlement mechanism to replace the US-sabotaged WTO.

China is not breaking stride. It is investing 8 per cent more each year in education. China already accounts for a quarter of the world’s STEM workforce. Its science investment is almost on par with that of the United States and rising at an annual rate of 10 per cent as America’s falls. China’s infrastructure is universally envied. It accounts for 30 per cent of global manufactures, versus America’s 16 per cent, and the gap is growing. It became the world’s largest consumer market in 2020. Its economy is ferociously competitive. China has many problems, but it has its act together and appears on top of them.

The principal challenge that China presents is not military but economic and technological. But the United States is geared only to deal with military threats. China has become the antidote to the US post-Cold War-enemy-deprivation syndrome and a gratifying driver of US defence spending. There are US aircraft and ships aggressively patrolling China’s borders, but no Chinese aircraft and ships off America’s coast. US bases ring China. There are no Chinese bases near America. Still, Washington ups its defence budget to make its ability to overwhelm China more credible. Yet, in the long run, the United States cannot outspend China militarily and cannot hope to beat it on its home ground.

Competitive rivalry can raise the competence of those engaged. But antagonism, seeking to hamstring one other, is not beneficial. It entrenches hostility, justifies hatred, injures, and threatens to weaken both sides.

Without exception, countries want multilateral backing to cope with the challenge, not unilateral US confrontation. They want to accommodate China on terms that maximise their sovereignties, not make China an enemy. If the United States persists in confrontation, it will find itself increasingly isolated. Given the state of US democracy, if its China policy is defined as a moral effort, most other nations will be alienated, not attracted.

There are many issues that cannot be addressed without Chinese participation. Chinese capacity needs to be leveraged to serve those US interests.

The United States should let market forces play the major part in governing trade and investment, creating a framework for trade in sensitive sectors that safeguards defence interests while taking advantage of China’s contribution to supply chains.

The United States needs to cooperate with China to reform global governance and address global problems of common concern like the mitigation of environmental degradation, pandemics, nuclear proliferation, global economic and financial instability, global poverty, and set standards for new technologies.

The United States should work with China to ease the inevitable transition from dollar hegemony to a multilateral monetary order in ways that preserve American influence; leverage not boycott China’s Belt and Road Initiative to benefit from its opportunities and connectivities; promote cross-Strait negotiations and mutual accommodation rather than China–Taiwan confrontation; and expand consular relations, restore exchanges, and promote Chinese studies to enhance understanding of China.

Doubling down on military competition gives China a reason to up the ante and call the bluff, leading to a mutually impoverishing arms race.

Stoking China’s neighbours’ dependency on the United States rather than helping countries be more self-reliant implicates them in US conflicts of interest with China without addressing their own. They need US diplomatic support more than military backing to work out a stable modus vivendi with China.

US China policy should be part of a new, broader Asia strategy — not the determinant of relations with other Asian nations or the driver of policies in the region. To hold its own with China, the United States must renew its competitive capacity and build a demonstrably better governed, better educated, more egalitarian, more open, more innovative, healthier, and freer society.

Chas W Freeman Jr is a Visiting Scholar at the Watson Institute for International and Public Affairs, Brown University, and a former US assistant secretary of defense for international security affairs.  This article is a digest of a presentation delivered on 11 February 2021 at the Washington Institute of Foreign Affairs.


The first only book that explains all three elements of China's success: 
  1. Talent at the Top: Only the brightest, most idealistic people are are admitted to politics–a policy unchanged in 2200 years.
  2. Data in the Middle: policies are implemented, tracked, and optimized based on terabytes of data. The PRC is the world's largest consumer of public surveys.
  3. Democracy at the Bottom: ordinary people, all unpaid amateurs, assemble twice a year to check the stats and sign off on new legislation. Policies need a minimum of 66% support to become law. That's why 95% of Chinese say the country is on the right track.
The Result? There are now more hungry children, more poor, homeless, drug addicted, and imprisoned people in America than in China.  

Why China Leads the World
investigates why the epidemic accelerated the change of global leadership from America to China and examines China’s bigger, steadier economy, its science leadership, stronger military, more powerful allies, and wider international support.

Crammed with charts, footnotes, and lengthy quotes, Why China Leads the World is a profoundly disturbing book that helps readers understand the tectonic shift and adapt to this new era–and even thrive in it.
The size of China's displacement of the world balance is such that the world must find a new balance. It is not possible to pretend that this is just another big player. This is the biggest player in the history of the world. Lee Kuan Yew: The Future of US-China Relations. The Atlantic.  
The Coronavirus accelerated the pace of change of global leadership from America to China. There are now more hungry children, more poor, homeless, drug addicted, and imprisoned people in America than in China. 

Suddenly, China's larger, steadier economy, its leadership in science, its stronger military, more powerful allies, and wider international support have handed it a lead that widens every day.  Crammed with direct quotes from its movers and shakers, charts, and footnotes, Why China Leads the World tells a remarkable tale, explains a tectonic shift, and helps you adapt to this new era, and even thrive in it. 
If we could just be China for one day we could actually authorize the right decisions. Thomas L. Friedman. The New York Times  

300 pages, 27 charts and graphs. $9.99 on Amazon and in bookstores worldwide.

The Needham Report

The Report of the International Scientific Commission for the Investigation of Facts Concerning Bacteriological Warfare in Korea and China (the ISC report), published at the height of the Korean War, validated claims by North Korea and China that the US had launched bacteriological warfare (biological warfare, BW) attacks against both troops and civilian targets in those two countries over a period of several months in 1952.

The most vilified document of the 20th Century.

The report’s release in September, 1952, brought a withering international attack. It was roundly denounced by American and British politicians of the highest rank, ridiculed by four star generals, accused of fraud by celebrated pundits, misquoted by notable scientists, and scorned by a compliant Western press. Charges were made against the quality and truthfulness of its science. Its “unstated” political agenda was denounced. The ethics of interviewing captured US pilots was excoriated and its authors were publicly flayed as communist dupes. The report was red baited in the US halls of Congress and deemed unpatriotic to read, and therefore went unread and deliberately forgotten over the years, which has been the fate of Korean War history in general. In subsequent decades, volumes placed in American university library collections were quietly and permanently removed from circulation.
When the rare copy came up for auction, it was discretely purchased and disappeared from public view. This critical 67 year old truth commission document from the Korean War was slipping towards oblivion. For these very reasons, historians and truth seekers should exalt the wondrous rebirth of the ISC Report from near extinction with the publication of this new electronic edition. We welcome the sunshine that re-publication brings to a shadowy and suppressed chapter of American Cold War history. (from the introduction by Thomas Powell) 800 pages.  $9.99.


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